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Analysis of Transmission of MRSA and ESBL-E among Pigs and Farm Personnel.

Schmithausen RM, Schulze-Geisthoevel SV, Stemmer F, El-Jade M, Reif M, Hack S, Meilaender A, Montabauer G, Fimmers R, Parcina M, Hoerauf A, Exner M, Petersen B, Bierbaum G, Bekeredjian-Ding I - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: ESBL-E positive air samples were detected on 6 out of 35 farms but no pig-to-human transmission was found.Molecular typing revealed transmission of ESBL-E within the pig compartments; however, related strains were also found on unrelated farms.Altogether, our data define stable air (MRSA), pig compartments (ESBL-E) and abattoir waiting areas (MRSA and ESBL-E) as major hot spots for transmission of MRSA and/or ESBL-E along the pig production chain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany; Institute of Animal Science, Preventive Health Management Group, University of Bonn, Katzenburgweg 7-9, Bonn, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Livestock-associated bacteria with resistance to two or more antibiotic drug classes have heightened our awareness for the consequences of antibiotic consumption and spread of resistant bacterial strains in the veterinary field. In this study we assessed the prevalence of concomitant colonization with livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) and enterobacteriaceae expressing extended-spectrum betalactamases (ESBL-E) in farms at the German-Dutch border region. Nasal colonization of pigs with MRSA (113/547 (20.7%)) was less frequent than rectal colonization with ESBL-E (163/540 (30.2%)). On the individual farm level MRSA correlated with ESBL-E recovery. The data further provide information on prevalence at different stages of pig production, including abattoirs, as well as in air samples and humans living and working on the farms. Notably, MRSA was detected in stable air samples of 34 out of 35 pig farms, highlighting air as an important MRSA transmission reservoir. The majority of MRSA isolates, including those from humans, displayed tetracycline resistance and spa types t011 and t034 characteristic for LA-MRSA, demonstrating transmission from pigs to humans. ESBL-E positive air samples were detected on 6 out of 35 farms but no pig-to-human transmission was found. Detection of ESBL-E, e.g. mostly Escherichia coli with CTX-M-type ESBL, was limited to these six farms. Molecular typing revealed transmission of ESBL-E within the pig compartments; however, related strains were also found on unrelated farms. Although our data suggest that acquisition of MRSA and ESBL-E might occur among pigs in the abattoirs, MRSA and ESBL-E were not detected on the carcasses. Altogether, our data define stable air (MRSA), pig compartments (ESBL-E) and abattoir waiting areas (MRSA and ESBL-E) as major hot spots for transmission of MRSA and/or ESBL-E along the pig production chain.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Molecular typing of E. coli ESBL-E isolates.Representative ESBL-E isolates from pigs, air and human were analyzed by repPCR (Diversilab, Biomerieux, Nürtingen, Germany) (A, B and D) or pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) (C). A, B and D: Diversilab typing results. Clusters of isolates obtained from different farms are marked by gray rectangles and clusters of isolates from pigs derived from the same farm are marked by black hatched lines. A: Overview of Diversilab typing results of representative ESBL-E isolates. The cut-off value was set at 95% similarity. B and C: To confirm strain relatedness all ESBL-E isolates from clusters with a similarity of ≥ 98% (summarized in (B)) were reanalyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) (C). D: On three exemplary farms with high ESBL-E prevalence (B09, B10, B18) all ESBL-E isolates from the same farm were subjected to Diversilab analysis to test for strain relatedness within the farm and/or a single compartment. Isolates from early finishing compartments are marked by black lines and those from finishing compartments by double black lines. Isolates from air are indicated by a “§”.
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pone.0138173.g004: Molecular typing of E. coli ESBL-E isolates.Representative ESBL-E isolates from pigs, air and human were analyzed by repPCR (Diversilab, Biomerieux, Nürtingen, Germany) (A, B and D) or pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) (C). A, B and D: Diversilab typing results. Clusters of isolates obtained from different farms are marked by gray rectangles and clusters of isolates from pigs derived from the same farm are marked by black hatched lines. A: Overview of Diversilab typing results of representative ESBL-E isolates. The cut-off value was set at 95% similarity. B and C: To confirm strain relatedness all ESBL-E isolates from clusters with a similarity of ≥ 98% (summarized in (B)) were reanalyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) (C). D: On three exemplary farms with high ESBL-E prevalence (B09, B10, B18) all ESBL-E isolates from the same farm were subjected to Diversilab analysis to test for strain relatedness within the farm and/or a single compartment. Isolates from early finishing compartments are marked by black lines and those from finishing compartments by double black lines. Isolates from air are indicated by a “§”.

Mentions: The results obtained revealed genetic heterogeneity of strains among the different farms (Fig 4A). However, a few clusters with high similarity (≥98%) composed of isolates from different farms were also detected (Fig 4B). The isolates within these clusters were subjected to PFGE analysis, which confirmed strain relatedness in some but not all cases. The results are shown in Fig 4C.


Analysis of Transmission of MRSA and ESBL-E among Pigs and Farm Personnel.

Schmithausen RM, Schulze-Geisthoevel SV, Stemmer F, El-Jade M, Reif M, Hack S, Meilaender A, Montabauer G, Fimmers R, Parcina M, Hoerauf A, Exner M, Petersen B, Bierbaum G, Bekeredjian-Ding I - PLoS ONE (2015)

Molecular typing of E. coli ESBL-E isolates.Representative ESBL-E isolates from pigs, air and human were analyzed by repPCR (Diversilab, Biomerieux, Nürtingen, Germany) (A, B and D) or pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) (C). A, B and D: Diversilab typing results. Clusters of isolates obtained from different farms are marked by gray rectangles and clusters of isolates from pigs derived from the same farm are marked by black hatched lines. A: Overview of Diversilab typing results of representative ESBL-E isolates. The cut-off value was set at 95% similarity. B and C: To confirm strain relatedness all ESBL-E isolates from clusters with a similarity of ≥ 98% (summarized in (B)) were reanalyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) (C). D: On three exemplary farms with high ESBL-E prevalence (B09, B10, B18) all ESBL-E isolates from the same farm were subjected to Diversilab analysis to test for strain relatedness within the farm and/or a single compartment. Isolates from early finishing compartments are marked by black lines and those from finishing compartments by double black lines. Isolates from air are indicated by a “§”.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4589321&req=5

pone.0138173.g004: Molecular typing of E. coli ESBL-E isolates.Representative ESBL-E isolates from pigs, air and human were analyzed by repPCR (Diversilab, Biomerieux, Nürtingen, Germany) (A, B and D) or pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) (C). A, B and D: Diversilab typing results. Clusters of isolates obtained from different farms are marked by gray rectangles and clusters of isolates from pigs derived from the same farm are marked by black hatched lines. A: Overview of Diversilab typing results of representative ESBL-E isolates. The cut-off value was set at 95% similarity. B and C: To confirm strain relatedness all ESBL-E isolates from clusters with a similarity of ≥ 98% (summarized in (B)) were reanalyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) (C). D: On three exemplary farms with high ESBL-E prevalence (B09, B10, B18) all ESBL-E isolates from the same farm were subjected to Diversilab analysis to test for strain relatedness within the farm and/or a single compartment. Isolates from early finishing compartments are marked by black lines and those from finishing compartments by double black lines. Isolates from air are indicated by a “§”.
Mentions: The results obtained revealed genetic heterogeneity of strains among the different farms (Fig 4A). However, a few clusters with high similarity (≥98%) composed of isolates from different farms were also detected (Fig 4B). The isolates within these clusters were subjected to PFGE analysis, which confirmed strain relatedness in some but not all cases. The results are shown in Fig 4C.

Bottom Line: ESBL-E positive air samples were detected on 6 out of 35 farms but no pig-to-human transmission was found.Molecular typing revealed transmission of ESBL-E within the pig compartments; however, related strains were also found on unrelated farms.Altogether, our data define stable air (MRSA), pig compartments (ESBL-E) and abattoir waiting areas (MRSA and ESBL-E) as major hot spots for transmission of MRSA and/or ESBL-E along the pig production chain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany; Institute of Animal Science, Preventive Health Management Group, University of Bonn, Katzenburgweg 7-9, Bonn, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Livestock-associated bacteria with resistance to two or more antibiotic drug classes have heightened our awareness for the consequences of antibiotic consumption and spread of resistant bacterial strains in the veterinary field. In this study we assessed the prevalence of concomitant colonization with livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) and enterobacteriaceae expressing extended-spectrum betalactamases (ESBL-E) in farms at the German-Dutch border region. Nasal colonization of pigs with MRSA (113/547 (20.7%)) was less frequent than rectal colonization with ESBL-E (163/540 (30.2%)). On the individual farm level MRSA correlated with ESBL-E recovery. The data further provide information on prevalence at different stages of pig production, including abattoirs, as well as in air samples and humans living and working on the farms. Notably, MRSA was detected in stable air samples of 34 out of 35 pig farms, highlighting air as an important MRSA transmission reservoir. The majority of MRSA isolates, including those from humans, displayed tetracycline resistance and spa types t011 and t034 characteristic for LA-MRSA, demonstrating transmission from pigs to humans. ESBL-E positive air samples were detected on 6 out of 35 farms but no pig-to-human transmission was found. Detection of ESBL-E, e.g. mostly Escherichia coli with CTX-M-type ESBL, was limited to these six farms. Molecular typing revealed transmission of ESBL-E within the pig compartments; however, related strains were also found on unrelated farms. Although our data suggest that acquisition of MRSA and ESBL-E might occur among pigs in the abattoirs, MRSA and ESBL-E were not detected on the carcasses. Altogether, our data define stable air (MRSA), pig compartments (ESBL-E) and abattoir waiting areas (MRSA and ESBL-E) as major hot spots for transmission of MRSA and/or ESBL-E along the pig production chain.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus