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Responding to Young People's Health Risks in Primary Care: A Cluster Randomised Trial of Training Clinicians in Screening and Motivational Interviewing.

Sanci L, Chondros P, Sawyer S, Pirkis J, Ozer E, Hegarty K, Yang F, Grabsch B, Shiell A, Cahill H, Ambresin AE, Patterson E, Patton G - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: There were no differences on secondary outcomes, apart from a greater detection of abuse (OR 13.8, CI 1.71 to 111).A complex intervention, compared to a simple educational seminar for practices, improved detection of health risk behaviours in young people.Impact on health outcomes was inconclusive.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of General Practice, Melbourne Medical School, The University of Melbourne, 200 Berkeley St., Carlton, VIC, 3053, Australia.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a complex intervention implementing best practice guidelines recommending clinicians screen and counsel young people across multiple psychosocial risk factors, on clinicians' detection of health risks and patients' risk taking behaviour, compared to a didactic seminar on young people's health.

Design: Pragmatic cluster randomised trial where volunteer general practices were stratified by postcode advantage or disadvantage score and billing type (private, free national health, community health centre), then randomised into either intervention or comparison arms using a computer generated random sequence. Three months post-intervention, patients were recruited from all practices post-consultation for a Computer Assisted Telephone Interview and followed up three and 12 months later. Researchers recruiting, consenting and interviewing patients and patients themselves were masked to allocation status; clinicians were not.

Setting: General practices in metropolitan and rural Victoria, Australia.

Participants: General practices with at least one interested clinician (general practitioner or nurse) and their 14-24 year old patients.

Intervention: This complex intervention was designed using evidence based practice in learning and change in clinician behaviour and general practice systems, and included best practice approaches to motivating change in adolescent risk taking behaviours. The intervention involved training clinicians (nine hours) in health risk screening, use of a screening tool and motivational interviewing; training all practice staff (receptionists and clinicians) in engaging youth; provision of feedback to clinicians of patients' risk data; and two practice visits to support new screening and referral resources. Comparison clinicians received one didactic educational seminar (three hours) on engaging youth and health risk screening.

Outcome measures: Primary outcomes were patient report of (1) clinician detection of at least one of six health risk behaviours (tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use, risks for sexually transmitted infection, STI, unplanned pregnancy, and road risks); and (2) change in one or more of the six health risk behaviours, at three months or at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were likelihood of future visits, trust in the clinician after exit interview, clinician detection of emotional distress and fear and abuse in relationships, and emotional distress at three and 12 months. Patient acceptability of the screening tool was also described for the intervention arm. Analyses were adjusted for practice location and billing type, patients' sex, age, and recruitment method, and past health risks, where appropriate. An intention to treat analysis approach was used, which included multilevel multiple imputation for missing outcome data.

Results: 42 practices were randomly allocated to intervention or comparison arms. Two intervention practices withdrew post allocation, prior to training, leaving 19 intervention (53 clinicians, 377 patients) and 21 comparison (79 clinicians, 524 patients) practices. 69% of patients in both intervention (260) and comparison (360) arms completed the 12 month follow-up. Intervention clinicians discussed more health risks per patient (59.7%) than comparison clinicians (52.7%) and thus were more likely to detect a higher proportion of young people with at least one of the six health risk behaviours (38.4% vs 26.7%, risk difference [RD] 11.6%, Confidence Interval [CI] 2.93% to 20.3%; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.7, CI 1.1 to 2.5). Patients reported less illicit drug use (RD -6.0, CI -11 to -1.2; OR 0.52, CI 0.28 to 0.96), and less risk for STI (RD -5.4, CI -11 to 0.2; OR 0.66, CI 0.46 to 0.96) at three months in the intervention relative to the comparison arm, and for unplanned pregnancy at 12 months (RD -4.4; CI -8.7 to -0.1; OR 0.40, CI 0.20 to 0.80). No differences were detected between arms on other health risks. There were no differences on secondary outcomes, apart from a greater detection of abuse (OR 13.8, CI 1.71 to 111). There were no reports of harmful events and intervention arm youth had high acceptance of the screening tool.

Conclusions: A complex intervention, compared to a simple educational seminar for practices, improved detection of health risk behaviours in young people. Impact on health outcomes was inconclusive. Technology enabling more efficient, systematic health-risk screening may allow providers to target counselling toward higher risk individuals. Further trials require more power to confirm health benefits.

Trial registration: ISRCTN.com ISRCTN16059206.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Trial Profile of practices and cohort sample.* Young people were ineligible if they were: unable to speak English; physically or mentally unwell; or, under 18 years old, judged by clinician to be incompetent to make an informed decision for participation in minimal risk research and unable or unwilling to obtain parental consent. † Never had contact (wrong phone number, too many attempted phone calls, or responded more than three weeks post consultation and were therefore too delayed to participate). ‡ A small number of young people completed the baseline survey and 12 month follow-up CATI but did not complete the three month CATI because they were too busy, away or not contactable during this time. § Denominator used to calculate the percentage is the total number of young people who consented and completed exit interview. ¶ One practice had no young people complete the 12-month CATI.
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pone.0137581.g001: Trial Profile of practices and cohort sample.* Young people were ineligible if they were: unable to speak English; physically or mentally unwell; or, under 18 years old, judged by clinician to be incompetent to make an informed decision for participation in minimal risk research and unable or unwilling to obtain parental consent. † Never had contact (wrong phone number, too many attempted phone calls, or responded more than three weeks post consultation and were therefore too delayed to participate). ‡ A small number of young people completed the baseline survey and 12 month follow-up CATI but did not complete the three month CATI because they were too busy, away or not contactable during this time. § Denominator used to calculate the percentage is the total number of young people who consented and completed exit interview. ¶ One practice had no young people complete the 12-month CATI.

Mentions: We approached 357 practices that expressed interest in the trial until 42 consented to participate [25]. Fig 1 shows the trial profile for the young people recruited post randomisation and followed up at three and 12 months. Two intervention arm practices withdrew post-randomisation but pre-intervention, leaving 19 intervention (53 clinicians, 377 patients) and 21 comparison (79 clinicians, 524 patients) practices. No further practices withdrew but one intervention practice had no young people complete the 12 month CATI.


Responding to Young People's Health Risks in Primary Care: A Cluster Randomised Trial of Training Clinicians in Screening and Motivational Interviewing.

Sanci L, Chondros P, Sawyer S, Pirkis J, Ozer E, Hegarty K, Yang F, Grabsch B, Shiell A, Cahill H, Ambresin AE, Patterson E, Patton G - PLoS ONE (2015)

Trial Profile of practices and cohort sample.* Young people were ineligible if they were: unable to speak English; physically or mentally unwell; or, under 18 years old, judged by clinician to be incompetent to make an informed decision for participation in minimal risk research and unable or unwilling to obtain parental consent. † Never had contact (wrong phone number, too many attempted phone calls, or responded more than three weeks post consultation and were therefore too delayed to participate). ‡ A small number of young people completed the baseline survey and 12 month follow-up CATI but did not complete the three month CATI because they were too busy, away or not contactable during this time. § Denominator used to calculate the percentage is the total number of young people who consented and completed exit interview. ¶ One practice had no young people complete the 12-month CATI.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4589315&req=5

pone.0137581.g001: Trial Profile of practices and cohort sample.* Young people were ineligible if they were: unable to speak English; physically or mentally unwell; or, under 18 years old, judged by clinician to be incompetent to make an informed decision for participation in minimal risk research and unable or unwilling to obtain parental consent. † Never had contact (wrong phone number, too many attempted phone calls, or responded more than three weeks post consultation and were therefore too delayed to participate). ‡ A small number of young people completed the baseline survey and 12 month follow-up CATI but did not complete the three month CATI because they were too busy, away or not contactable during this time. § Denominator used to calculate the percentage is the total number of young people who consented and completed exit interview. ¶ One practice had no young people complete the 12-month CATI.
Mentions: We approached 357 practices that expressed interest in the trial until 42 consented to participate [25]. Fig 1 shows the trial profile for the young people recruited post randomisation and followed up at three and 12 months. Two intervention arm practices withdrew post-randomisation but pre-intervention, leaving 19 intervention (53 clinicians, 377 patients) and 21 comparison (79 clinicians, 524 patients) practices. No further practices withdrew but one intervention practice had no young people complete the 12 month CATI.

Bottom Line: There were no differences on secondary outcomes, apart from a greater detection of abuse (OR 13.8, CI 1.71 to 111).A complex intervention, compared to a simple educational seminar for practices, improved detection of health risk behaviours in young people.Impact on health outcomes was inconclusive.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of General Practice, Melbourne Medical School, The University of Melbourne, 200 Berkeley St., Carlton, VIC, 3053, Australia.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a complex intervention implementing best practice guidelines recommending clinicians screen and counsel young people across multiple psychosocial risk factors, on clinicians' detection of health risks and patients' risk taking behaviour, compared to a didactic seminar on young people's health.

Design: Pragmatic cluster randomised trial where volunteer general practices were stratified by postcode advantage or disadvantage score and billing type (private, free national health, community health centre), then randomised into either intervention or comparison arms using a computer generated random sequence. Three months post-intervention, patients were recruited from all practices post-consultation for a Computer Assisted Telephone Interview and followed up three and 12 months later. Researchers recruiting, consenting and interviewing patients and patients themselves were masked to allocation status; clinicians were not.

Setting: General practices in metropolitan and rural Victoria, Australia.

Participants: General practices with at least one interested clinician (general practitioner or nurse) and their 14-24 year old patients.

Intervention: This complex intervention was designed using evidence based practice in learning and change in clinician behaviour and general practice systems, and included best practice approaches to motivating change in adolescent risk taking behaviours. The intervention involved training clinicians (nine hours) in health risk screening, use of a screening tool and motivational interviewing; training all practice staff (receptionists and clinicians) in engaging youth; provision of feedback to clinicians of patients' risk data; and two practice visits to support new screening and referral resources. Comparison clinicians received one didactic educational seminar (three hours) on engaging youth and health risk screening.

Outcome measures: Primary outcomes were patient report of (1) clinician detection of at least one of six health risk behaviours (tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use, risks for sexually transmitted infection, STI, unplanned pregnancy, and road risks); and (2) change in one or more of the six health risk behaviours, at three months or at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were likelihood of future visits, trust in the clinician after exit interview, clinician detection of emotional distress and fear and abuse in relationships, and emotional distress at three and 12 months. Patient acceptability of the screening tool was also described for the intervention arm. Analyses were adjusted for practice location and billing type, patients' sex, age, and recruitment method, and past health risks, where appropriate. An intention to treat analysis approach was used, which included multilevel multiple imputation for missing outcome data.

Results: 42 practices were randomly allocated to intervention or comparison arms. Two intervention practices withdrew post allocation, prior to training, leaving 19 intervention (53 clinicians, 377 patients) and 21 comparison (79 clinicians, 524 patients) practices. 69% of patients in both intervention (260) and comparison (360) arms completed the 12 month follow-up. Intervention clinicians discussed more health risks per patient (59.7%) than comparison clinicians (52.7%) and thus were more likely to detect a higher proportion of young people with at least one of the six health risk behaviours (38.4% vs 26.7%, risk difference [RD] 11.6%, Confidence Interval [CI] 2.93% to 20.3%; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.7, CI 1.1 to 2.5). Patients reported less illicit drug use (RD -6.0, CI -11 to -1.2; OR 0.52, CI 0.28 to 0.96), and less risk for STI (RD -5.4, CI -11 to 0.2; OR 0.66, CI 0.46 to 0.96) at three months in the intervention relative to the comparison arm, and for unplanned pregnancy at 12 months (RD -4.4; CI -8.7 to -0.1; OR 0.40, CI 0.20 to 0.80). No differences were detected between arms on other health risks. There were no differences on secondary outcomes, apart from a greater detection of abuse (OR 13.8, CI 1.71 to 111). There were no reports of harmful events and intervention arm youth had high acceptance of the screening tool.

Conclusions: A complex intervention, compared to a simple educational seminar for practices, improved detection of health risk behaviours in young people. Impact on health outcomes was inconclusive. Technology enabling more efficient, systematic health-risk screening may allow providers to target counselling toward higher risk individuals. Further trials require more power to confirm health benefits.

Trial registration: ISRCTN.com ISRCTN16059206.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus