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Transcriptional responses and flavor volatiles biosynthesis in methyl jasmonate-treated tea leaves.

Shi J, Ma C, Qi D, Lv H, Yang T, Peng Q, Chen Z, Lin Z - BMC Plant Biol. (2015)

Bottom Line: The α-Lenolenic acid degradation pathway was firstly responded resulting in activating the JA-pathway inner tea leaves, and the MEP/DOXP pathway significantly exaggerated.Moreover, the genes related to the terpenoid backbone biosynthesis pathway showed different expression patterns compared with the untreated leaves.The expression levels of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-phosphate synthase (DXS), all-trans-nonaprenyl-diphosphate synthase, geranylgeranyl reductase, geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (type II), hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase and 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase increased by approximately 2-4-fold.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Tea Biology and Resource Utilization of Ministry of Agriculture, Tea Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 9th South Meiling Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310008, PR China. Shijiang32@tricaas.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Tea (Camellia sinensis) has long been consumed worldwide for its amazing flavor and aroma. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which acts as an effective elicitor among the plant kingdom, could mostly improve the quality of tea aroma by promoting flavor volatiles in tea leaves. Although a variety of volatile secondary metabolites that contribute to aroma quality have been identified, our understanding of the biosynthetic pathways of these compounds has remained largely incomplete. Therefore, information aboaut the transcriptome of tea leaves and, specifically, details of any changes in gene expression in response to MeJA, is required for a better understanding of the biological mechanisms of MeJA-mediated volatiles biosynthesis. Moreover, MeJA treatment could exaggerate the responses of secondary metabolites and some gene expression which offer a better chance to figure out the mechanism.

Results: The results of two-dimensional gas-chromatograph mass-spectrometry showed that the terpenoids content in MeJA-treated tea leaves increased, especially linalool, geraniol, and phenylethyl alcohol. More importantly, we carried out RNA-seq to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to volatiles biosynthesis pathways induced by MeJA treatment (0 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h) in tea leaves. We identified 19245, 18614, 11890 DEGs respectively in the MeJA_12h, MeJA_24 h and MeJA_48 h samples. The α-Lenolenic acid degradation pathway was firstly responded resulting in activating the JA-pathway inner tea leaves, and the MEP/DOXP pathway significantly exaggerated. Notably, the expression level of jasmonate O-methyltransferase, which is associated with the central JA biosynthesis pathway, was increased by 7.52-fold in MeJA_24 h tea leaves. Moreover, the genes related to the terpenoid backbone biosynthesis pathway showed different expression patterns compared with the untreated leaves. The expression levels of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-phosphate synthase (DXS), all-trans-nonaprenyl-diphosphate synthase, geranylgeranyl reductase, geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (type II), hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase and 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase increased by approximately 2-4-fold.

Conclusions: The results of two-dimension gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry analysis suggested that exogenous application of MeJA could induce the levels of volatile components in tea leaves, especially the geraniol, linalool and its oxides. Moreover, the transcriptome analysis showed increased expression of genes in α-Lenolenic acid degradation pathway which produced massive jasmonic acid and quickly activated holistic JA-pathway inner tea leaves, also the terpenoid backbones biosynthesis pathway was significantly affected after MeJA treatment. In general, MeJA could greatly activate secondary metabolism pathways, especially volatiles. The results will deeply increase our understanding of the volatile metabolites biosynthesis pathways of tea leaves in response to MeJA.

No MeSH data available.


Gene Ontology enrichment assigned to tea unigenes. GO categories of biological process, cellular component and molecular function for the transcriptome of AR. Histogram presentation of the gene ontology classification. The results are summarized in the three main GO categories: biological process, cellular component and molecular function. a. Gene Ontology classification of 12 h methyl jasmonate-induced tea leaves; b. Gene Ontology classification of 24 h methyl jasmonate-induced tea leaves; c. Gene Ontology classification of 48 h methyl jasmonate-induced tea leaves. Note: red line represents the p value = 0.05
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Fig2: Gene Ontology enrichment assigned to tea unigenes. GO categories of biological process, cellular component and molecular function for the transcriptome of AR. Histogram presentation of the gene ontology classification. The results are summarized in the three main GO categories: biological process, cellular component and molecular function. a. Gene Ontology classification of 12 h methyl jasmonate-induced tea leaves; b. Gene Ontology classification of 24 h methyl jasmonate-induced tea leaves; c. Gene Ontology classification of 48 h methyl jasmonate-induced tea leaves. Note: red line represents the p value = 0.05

Mentions: The KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) is a database linking genomic information with higher order functional information by collecting manually drawn pathway maps representing current knowledge on cellular processes and standardized gene annotations. To gain an overview of tea metabolic pathways that are modulated by MeJA, DEGs were analyzed according to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG; http://www.genome.jp). The analysis revealed a total of 45 KEGG pathways containing 20404 assigned unigenes (Additional file 4: Table S2). The pathways with the largest numbers of assigned unigenes were “metabolism”, “human disease” and “genetic information processing”. Furthermore, we performed KEGG enrichment analysis of the DEGs identified in the MeJA_12h, MeJA_24h and MeJA_48h samples compared with the MeJA-untreated samples respectively, and picked out 1406, 1443, 1695 DEGs which important in volatile related pathways (Fig. 2).Fig. 2


Transcriptional responses and flavor volatiles biosynthesis in methyl jasmonate-treated tea leaves.

Shi J, Ma C, Qi D, Lv H, Yang T, Peng Q, Chen Z, Lin Z - BMC Plant Biol. (2015)

Gene Ontology enrichment assigned to tea unigenes. GO categories of biological process, cellular component and molecular function for the transcriptome of AR. Histogram presentation of the gene ontology classification. The results are summarized in the three main GO categories: biological process, cellular component and molecular function. a. Gene Ontology classification of 12 h methyl jasmonate-induced tea leaves; b. Gene Ontology classification of 24 h methyl jasmonate-induced tea leaves; c. Gene Ontology classification of 48 h methyl jasmonate-induced tea leaves. Note: red line represents the p value = 0.05
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588909&req=5

Fig2: Gene Ontology enrichment assigned to tea unigenes. GO categories of biological process, cellular component and molecular function for the transcriptome of AR. Histogram presentation of the gene ontology classification. The results are summarized in the three main GO categories: biological process, cellular component and molecular function. a. Gene Ontology classification of 12 h methyl jasmonate-induced tea leaves; b. Gene Ontology classification of 24 h methyl jasmonate-induced tea leaves; c. Gene Ontology classification of 48 h methyl jasmonate-induced tea leaves. Note: red line represents the p value = 0.05
Mentions: The KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) is a database linking genomic information with higher order functional information by collecting manually drawn pathway maps representing current knowledge on cellular processes and standardized gene annotations. To gain an overview of tea metabolic pathways that are modulated by MeJA, DEGs were analyzed according to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG; http://www.genome.jp). The analysis revealed a total of 45 KEGG pathways containing 20404 assigned unigenes (Additional file 4: Table S2). The pathways with the largest numbers of assigned unigenes were “metabolism”, “human disease” and “genetic information processing”. Furthermore, we performed KEGG enrichment analysis of the DEGs identified in the MeJA_12h, MeJA_24h and MeJA_48h samples compared with the MeJA-untreated samples respectively, and picked out 1406, 1443, 1695 DEGs which important in volatile related pathways (Fig. 2).Fig. 2

Bottom Line: The α-Lenolenic acid degradation pathway was firstly responded resulting in activating the JA-pathway inner tea leaves, and the MEP/DOXP pathway significantly exaggerated.Moreover, the genes related to the terpenoid backbone biosynthesis pathway showed different expression patterns compared with the untreated leaves.The expression levels of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-phosphate synthase (DXS), all-trans-nonaprenyl-diphosphate synthase, geranylgeranyl reductase, geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (type II), hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase and 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase increased by approximately 2-4-fold.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Tea Biology and Resource Utilization of Ministry of Agriculture, Tea Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 9th South Meiling Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310008, PR China. Shijiang32@tricaas.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Tea (Camellia sinensis) has long been consumed worldwide for its amazing flavor and aroma. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which acts as an effective elicitor among the plant kingdom, could mostly improve the quality of tea aroma by promoting flavor volatiles in tea leaves. Although a variety of volatile secondary metabolites that contribute to aroma quality have been identified, our understanding of the biosynthetic pathways of these compounds has remained largely incomplete. Therefore, information aboaut the transcriptome of tea leaves and, specifically, details of any changes in gene expression in response to MeJA, is required for a better understanding of the biological mechanisms of MeJA-mediated volatiles biosynthesis. Moreover, MeJA treatment could exaggerate the responses of secondary metabolites and some gene expression which offer a better chance to figure out the mechanism.

Results: The results of two-dimensional gas-chromatograph mass-spectrometry showed that the terpenoids content in MeJA-treated tea leaves increased, especially linalool, geraniol, and phenylethyl alcohol. More importantly, we carried out RNA-seq to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to volatiles biosynthesis pathways induced by MeJA treatment (0 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h) in tea leaves. We identified 19245, 18614, 11890 DEGs respectively in the MeJA_12h, MeJA_24 h and MeJA_48 h samples. The α-Lenolenic acid degradation pathway was firstly responded resulting in activating the JA-pathway inner tea leaves, and the MEP/DOXP pathway significantly exaggerated. Notably, the expression level of jasmonate O-methyltransferase, which is associated with the central JA biosynthesis pathway, was increased by 7.52-fold in MeJA_24 h tea leaves. Moreover, the genes related to the terpenoid backbone biosynthesis pathway showed different expression patterns compared with the untreated leaves. The expression levels of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-phosphate synthase (DXS), all-trans-nonaprenyl-diphosphate synthase, geranylgeranyl reductase, geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (type II), hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase and 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase increased by approximately 2-4-fold.

Conclusions: The results of two-dimension gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry analysis suggested that exogenous application of MeJA could induce the levels of volatile components in tea leaves, especially the geraniol, linalool and its oxides. Moreover, the transcriptome analysis showed increased expression of genes in α-Lenolenic acid degradation pathway which produced massive jasmonic acid and quickly activated holistic JA-pathway inner tea leaves, also the terpenoid backbones biosynthesis pathway was significantly affected after MeJA treatment. In general, MeJA could greatly activate secondary metabolism pathways, especially volatiles. The results will deeply increase our understanding of the volatile metabolites biosynthesis pathways of tea leaves in response to MeJA.

No MeSH data available.