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G-fibre cell wall development in willow stems during tension wood induction.

Gritsch C, Wan Y, Mitchell RA, Shewry PR, Hanley SJ, Karp A - J. Exp. Bot. (2015)

Bottom Line: In addition, the expression patterns of an FLA gene (SxFLA12) and a COBRA-like gene (SxCOBL4) were compared using RNA in situ hybridization.Deposition of the non-cellulosic polysaccharides (1-4)-β-D-galactan, mannan and de-esterified homogalacturonan was found to be highly associated with TW, often with the G-layer itself.SxFLA12 and SxCOBL4 transcripts were specifically expressed in developing TW, confirming their importance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Rothamsted Research, West Common, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ, UK.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Generalized model of the distribution of β-galactan, xylan, homogalacturonan, and mannan epitopes in mature NW fibres (including OW fibres) and in developing and mature G-fibres in TW. Whole cells are shown on the left and detail of the cell wall is shown on the right. The pale yellow colour in the background in the cell wall represents cellulose, which is present in the cell wall layers in NW and TW fibres. The dots in four different colours represent the four cell wall polymers investigated in this study. The density of the dots gives an approximate indication of the strength of the labelling as seen by immunofluorescence and/or immunogold TEM. The homogalacturonan epitope (green dots) is present in NW and TW fibres mainly in the cell corners and also in the compound middle lamella (middle lamella + primary cell wall). Xylan (blue dots) is restricted to the SCWs of both NW and TW fibres, and it is completely absent from the G-layer in both developing and mature fibres. Red dots show the position of (1–4)-β-D-galactan, which is almost absent in the SCW of NW fibres, but is highly concentrated in the G-layer of developing fibres. In mature fibres, the red dots indicate that in most G-fibres, (1–4)-β-D-galactan is located predominantly in the interface between the SCW and the G-layer. The black dots indicate the location of mannans, which appear to be deposited in very small amounts in the SCW of NW fibres, but more intensely in developing G-fibres. Some mannan is also present in the G-layer of mature G-fibres.
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Figure 9: Generalized model of the distribution of β-galactan, xylan, homogalacturonan, and mannan epitopes in mature NW fibres (including OW fibres) and in developing and mature G-fibres in TW. Whole cells are shown on the left and detail of the cell wall is shown on the right. The pale yellow colour in the background in the cell wall represents cellulose, which is present in the cell wall layers in NW and TW fibres. The dots in four different colours represent the four cell wall polymers investigated in this study. The density of the dots gives an approximate indication of the strength of the labelling as seen by immunofluorescence and/or immunogold TEM. The homogalacturonan epitope (green dots) is present in NW and TW fibres mainly in the cell corners and also in the compound middle lamella (middle lamella + primary cell wall). Xylan (blue dots) is restricted to the SCWs of both NW and TW fibres, and it is completely absent from the G-layer in both developing and mature fibres. Red dots show the position of (1–4)-β-D-galactan, which is almost absent in the SCW of NW fibres, but is highly concentrated in the G-layer of developing fibres. In mature fibres, the red dots indicate that in most G-fibres, (1–4)-β-D-galactan is located predominantly in the interface between the SCW and the G-layer. The black dots indicate the location of mannans, which appear to be deposited in very small amounts in the SCW of NW fibres, but more intensely in developing G-fibres. Some mannan is also present in the G-layer of mature G-fibres.

Mentions: The immunofluorescence and TEM observations of the present study can be used to derive a generalized model of the distribution of the (1–4)-β-D-galactan, homogalacturonan, xylan, and mannan epitopes (Fig. 9) in developing and mature G-fibres of TW of willow compared with NW. Although based on the detailed results obtained for one genotype of willow, in which TW, OW, and NW were compared, the authors have also studied one other genotype (data not shown) and found no clear differences in the results of immunolabelling and in situ hybridization. This suggests that the model will provide a useful generic representation to compare TW development in detail in willow genotypes differing in sugar release potential under RW-inducing conditions.


G-fibre cell wall development in willow stems during tension wood induction.

Gritsch C, Wan Y, Mitchell RA, Shewry PR, Hanley SJ, Karp A - J. Exp. Bot. (2015)

Generalized model of the distribution of β-galactan, xylan, homogalacturonan, and mannan epitopes in mature NW fibres (including OW fibres) and in developing and mature G-fibres in TW. Whole cells are shown on the left and detail of the cell wall is shown on the right. The pale yellow colour in the background in the cell wall represents cellulose, which is present in the cell wall layers in NW and TW fibres. The dots in four different colours represent the four cell wall polymers investigated in this study. The density of the dots gives an approximate indication of the strength of the labelling as seen by immunofluorescence and/or immunogold TEM. The homogalacturonan epitope (green dots) is present in NW and TW fibres mainly in the cell corners and also in the compound middle lamella (middle lamella + primary cell wall). Xylan (blue dots) is restricted to the SCWs of both NW and TW fibres, and it is completely absent from the G-layer in both developing and mature fibres. Red dots show the position of (1–4)-β-D-galactan, which is almost absent in the SCW of NW fibres, but is highly concentrated in the G-layer of developing fibres. In mature fibres, the red dots indicate that in most G-fibres, (1–4)-β-D-galactan is located predominantly in the interface between the SCW and the G-layer. The black dots indicate the location of mannans, which appear to be deposited in very small amounts in the SCW of NW fibres, but more intensely in developing G-fibres. Some mannan is also present in the G-layer of mature G-fibres.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
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Figure 9: Generalized model of the distribution of β-galactan, xylan, homogalacturonan, and mannan epitopes in mature NW fibres (including OW fibres) and in developing and mature G-fibres in TW. Whole cells are shown on the left and detail of the cell wall is shown on the right. The pale yellow colour in the background in the cell wall represents cellulose, which is present in the cell wall layers in NW and TW fibres. The dots in four different colours represent the four cell wall polymers investigated in this study. The density of the dots gives an approximate indication of the strength of the labelling as seen by immunofluorescence and/or immunogold TEM. The homogalacturonan epitope (green dots) is present in NW and TW fibres mainly in the cell corners and also in the compound middle lamella (middle lamella + primary cell wall). Xylan (blue dots) is restricted to the SCWs of both NW and TW fibres, and it is completely absent from the G-layer in both developing and mature fibres. Red dots show the position of (1–4)-β-D-galactan, which is almost absent in the SCW of NW fibres, but is highly concentrated in the G-layer of developing fibres. In mature fibres, the red dots indicate that in most G-fibres, (1–4)-β-D-galactan is located predominantly in the interface between the SCW and the G-layer. The black dots indicate the location of mannans, which appear to be deposited in very small amounts in the SCW of NW fibres, but more intensely in developing G-fibres. Some mannan is also present in the G-layer of mature G-fibres.
Mentions: The immunofluorescence and TEM observations of the present study can be used to derive a generalized model of the distribution of the (1–4)-β-D-galactan, homogalacturonan, xylan, and mannan epitopes (Fig. 9) in developing and mature G-fibres of TW of willow compared with NW. Although based on the detailed results obtained for one genotype of willow, in which TW, OW, and NW were compared, the authors have also studied one other genotype (data not shown) and found no clear differences in the results of immunolabelling and in situ hybridization. This suggests that the model will provide a useful generic representation to compare TW development in detail in willow genotypes differing in sugar release potential under RW-inducing conditions.

Bottom Line: In addition, the expression patterns of an FLA gene (SxFLA12) and a COBRA-like gene (SxCOBL4) were compared using RNA in situ hybridization.Deposition of the non-cellulosic polysaccharides (1-4)-β-D-galactan, mannan and de-esterified homogalacturonan was found to be highly associated with TW, often with the G-layer itself.SxFLA12 and SxCOBL4 transcripts were specifically expressed in developing TW, confirming their importance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Rothamsted Research, West Common, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ, UK.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus