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G-fibre cell wall development in willow stems during tension wood induction.

Gritsch C, Wan Y, Mitchell RA, Shewry PR, Hanley SJ, Karp A - J. Exp. Bot. (2015)

Bottom Line: In addition, the expression patterns of an FLA gene (SxFLA12) and a COBRA-like gene (SxCOBL4) were compared using RNA in situ hybridization.Deposition of the non-cellulosic polysaccharides (1-4)-β-D-galactan, mannan and de-esterified homogalacturonan was found to be highly associated with TW, often with the G-layer itself.SxFLA12 and SxCOBL4 transcripts were specifically expressed in developing TW, confirming their importance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Rothamsted Research, West Common, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ, UK.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Histological staining. The stems inclined for 1 and 2 weeks were from Experiment I (cuttings grown for 4 weeks before induction) and stems inclined for 4 weeks were from Experiment II (cuttings grown for 2 weeks before induction). Because of the difference in growth rates between the experiments, the 2-week inclined stems are larger in diameter. (A) Chlorazol black and safranin stain of stem cross-sections. Black staining indicates the presence of G-fibres on the TW side. (B) Phloroglucinol-HCl stain. G-fibres on the TW side show reduced pink staining. Bar: 1000 µm.
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Figure 2: Histological staining. The stems inclined for 1 and 2 weeks were from Experiment I (cuttings grown for 4 weeks before induction) and stems inclined for 4 weeks were from Experiment II (cuttings grown for 2 weeks before induction). Because of the difference in growth rates between the experiments, the 2-week inclined stems are larger in diameter. (A) Chlorazol black and safranin stain of stem cross-sections. Black staining indicates the presence of G-fibres on the TW side. (B) Phloroglucinol-HCl stain. G-fibres on the TW side show reduced pink staining. Bar: 1000 µm.

Mentions: Cuttings were grown for either 4 weeks (Experiment I) or 2 weeks (Experiment II) before induction, with cross-sections of 1- and 2-week induced plants being taken from Experiment I, and of 4-week induced plants and control samples from Experiment II. Because the plants in Experiment I were older before induction, the stems sampled after 2 weeks’ induction in Experiment I had larger diameters than those after 4 weeks in Experiment II. Staining with Chlorazol black and safranin showed that TW started to form from the first week after inclined growth (Fig. 2A). The G-layers were stained black with Chlorazol black (Fig. 2A), whereas in OW normal fibre cell walls were stained red with safranin. Following a longer period of induction in Experiment II, the area of TW increased greatly and G-fibres stained strongly, indicating high cellulose and low lignin content of the G-fibres. By contrast, NW in control stems were significantly less stained with Chlorazol black. Phloroglucinol-HCl stain showed that lignification was greatly reduced on the TW side (Fig. 2B) in contrast to OW, which was strongly stained pink due to higher levels of lignification.


G-fibre cell wall development in willow stems during tension wood induction.

Gritsch C, Wan Y, Mitchell RA, Shewry PR, Hanley SJ, Karp A - J. Exp. Bot. (2015)

Histological staining. The stems inclined for 1 and 2 weeks were from Experiment I (cuttings grown for 4 weeks before induction) and stems inclined for 4 weeks were from Experiment II (cuttings grown for 2 weeks before induction). Because of the difference in growth rates between the experiments, the 2-week inclined stems are larger in diameter. (A) Chlorazol black and safranin stain of stem cross-sections. Black staining indicates the presence of G-fibres on the TW side. (B) Phloroglucinol-HCl stain. G-fibres on the TW side show reduced pink staining. Bar: 1000 µm.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588891&req=5

Figure 2: Histological staining. The stems inclined for 1 and 2 weeks were from Experiment I (cuttings grown for 4 weeks before induction) and stems inclined for 4 weeks were from Experiment II (cuttings grown for 2 weeks before induction). Because of the difference in growth rates between the experiments, the 2-week inclined stems are larger in diameter. (A) Chlorazol black and safranin stain of stem cross-sections. Black staining indicates the presence of G-fibres on the TW side. (B) Phloroglucinol-HCl stain. G-fibres on the TW side show reduced pink staining. Bar: 1000 µm.
Mentions: Cuttings were grown for either 4 weeks (Experiment I) or 2 weeks (Experiment II) before induction, with cross-sections of 1- and 2-week induced plants being taken from Experiment I, and of 4-week induced plants and control samples from Experiment II. Because the plants in Experiment I were older before induction, the stems sampled after 2 weeks’ induction in Experiment I had larger diameters than those after 4 weeks in Experiment II. Staining with Chlorazol black and safranin showed that TW started to form from the first week after inclined growth (Fig. 2A). The G-layers were stained black with Chlorazol black (Fig. 2A), whereas in OW normal fibre cell walls were stained red with safranin. Following a longer period of induction in Experiment II, the area of TW increased greatly and G-fibres stained strongly, indicating high cellulose and low lignin content of the G-fibres. By contrast, NW in control stems were significantly less stained with Chlorazol black. Phloroglucinol-HCl stain showed that lignification was greatly reduced on the TW side (Fig. 2B) in contrast to OW, which was strongly stained pink due to higher levels of lignification.

Bottom Line: In addition, the expression patterns of an FLA gene (SxFLA12) and a COBRA-like gene (SxCOBL4) were compared using RNA in situ hybridization.Deposition of the non-cellulosic polysaccharides (1-4)-β-D-galactan, mannan and de-esterified homogalacturonan was found to be highly associated with TW, often with the G-layer itself.SxFLA12 and SxCOBL4 transcripts were specifically expressed in developing TW, confirming their importance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Rothamsted Research, West Common, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ, UK.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus