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FLOWERING LOCUS T has higher protein mobility than TWIN SISTER OF FT.

Jin S, Jung HS, Chung KS, Lee JH, Ahn JH - J. Exp. Bot. (2015)

Bottom Line: In plants, successful reproduction requires the proper timing of flowering under changing environmental conditions.Previous work has shown that FT is graft-transmissible; by contrast, this study did not detect movement of TSF from the roots into the shoot of the scion plants.Taking these results together, we propose that protein mobility of FT is higher than that of TSF, possibly due to a protein domain that confers mobility and/or protein stability.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Creative Research Initiatives, Department of Life Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, South Korea.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Flowering times of ft tsf scion plants butt-grafted to plants overexpressing FT/TSF chimeric proteins. (A) Expression of FT/TSF chimeric proteins in the rootstock used for butt-grafting. F: region originating from FT; T: region originating from TSF. (B) Distribution of flowering time of grafted ft tsf scion plants under LD conditions, presented as a heat map. The structure of each chimeric gene expressed in the plants used for rootstock is shown next to the name of each construct. Sequences of FT and TSF are shown as grey and open boxes, respectively. n = number of plants measured. (C) Detection of FT/TSF chimeric proteins in the shoot apical region of ft tsf scion plants. Extracted proteins were immunoprecipitated with anti-T7 monoclonal antibody and immunoblotted anti-T7 polyclonal antibody. Protein extracts from the non-grafted 35S::FT:T7 seedlings and from wild-type Col-0 plants were used as a positive control (PC) and a negative control (NC), respectively.
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Figure 3: Flowering times of ft tsf scion plants butt-grafted to plants overexpressing FT/TSF chimeric proteins. (A) Expression of FT/TSF chimeric proteins in the rootstock used for butt-grafting. F: region originating from FT; T: region originating from TSF. (B) Distribution of flowering time of grafted ft tsf scion plants under LD conditions, presented as a heat map. The structure of each chimeric gene expressed in the plants used for rootstock is shown next to the name of each construct. Sequences of FT and TSF are shown as grey and open boxes, respectively. n = number of plants measured. (C) Detection of FT/TSF chimeric proteins in the shoot apical region of ft tsf scion plants. Extracted proteins were immunoprecipitated with anti-T7 monoclonal antibody and immunoblotted anti-T7 polyclonal antibody. Protein extracts from the non-grafted 35S::FT:T7 seedlings and from wild-type Col-0 plants were used as a positive control (PC) and a negative control (NC), respectively.

Mentions: Butt-grafting was performed to examine the effect of grafting rootstocks of homozygous plants expressing FT/TSF chimeras to ft tsf scion plants. First, the expression of FT/TSF chimeric proteins in the rootstock was confirmed (Fig. 3A). A striking change was observed in the flowering time of the scion plants grafted to rootstocks overexpressing TFT, in which Region II of TSF was substituted for Region II of FT (Fig. 3B). Many of the ft tsf/TFT lines showed flowering times that were intermediate between those of ft tsf/FFF and ft tsf/TTT lines, suggesting that TFT protein may move to the shoot apex to induce early flowering. However, grafting to plants expressing TTF and FTT still resulted in late flowering in the ft tsf scion, similar to that seen with TTT, indicating that substitution of Region I and III did not affect flowering time. It should be noted that since overexpression of FTT was slightly less effective than overexpression of other chimeric genes (Fig. 2), we cannot exclude the possibility that FTT protein is partially functional and this may contribute to the failure to accelerate the flowering time of scion plants. Interestingly, grafting of FFT, FTF, and TFF resulted in early flowering, similar to that seen for FFF. In particular, grafting of plants expressing FTF, the opposite construct of TFT, did not cause a delay in flowering time. This indicated that substitution of any single region of FT with TSF failed to change flowering time. In addition, consistent flowering time changes from ft tsf scion plants grafted to independent FTF- and TFT-overexpressing lines were observed (Supplementary Fig. S7).


FLOWERING LOCUS T has higher protein mobility than TWIN SISTER OF FT.

Jin S, Jung HS, Chung KS, Lee JH, Ahn JH - J. Exp. Bot. (2015)

Flowering times of ft tsf scion plants butt-grafted to plants overexpressing FT/TSF chimeric proteins. (A) Expression of FT/TSF chimeric proteins in the rootstock used for butt-grafting. F: region originating from FT; T: region originating from TSF. (B) Distribution of flowering time of grafted ft tsf scion plants under LD conditions, presented as a heat map. The structure of each chimeric gene expressed in the plants used for rootstock is shown next to the name of each construct. Sequences of FT and TSF are shown as grey and open boxes, respectively. n = number of plants measured. (C) Detection of FT/TSF chimeric proteins in the shoot apical region of ft tsf scion plants. Extracted proteins were immunoprecipitated with anti-T7 monoclonal antibody and immunoblotted anti-T7 polyclonal antibody. Protein extracts from the non-grafted 35S::FT:T7 seedlings and from wild-type Col-0 plants were used as a positive control (PC) and a negative control (NC), respectively.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Figure 3: Flowering times of ft tsf scion plants butt-grafted to plants overexpressing FT/TSF chimeric proteins. (A) Expression of FT/TSF chimeric proteins in the rootstock used for butt-grafting. F: region originating from FT; T: region originating from TSF. (B) Distribution of flowering time of grafted ft tsf scion plants under LD conditions, presented as a heat map. The structure of each chimeric gene expressed in the plants used for rootstock is shown next to the name of each construct. Sequences of FT and TSF are shown as grey and open boxes, respectively. n = number of plants measured. (C) Detection of FT/TSF chimeric proteins in the shoot apical region of ft tsf scion plants. Extracted proteins were immunoprecipitated with anti-T7 monoclonal antibody and immunoblotted anti-T7 polyclonal antibody. Protein extracts from the non-grafted 35S::FT:T7 seedlings and from wild-type Col-0 plants were used as a positive control (PC) and a negative control (NC), respectively.
Mentions: Butt-grafting was performed to examine the effect of grafting rootstocks of homozygous plants expressing FT/TSF chimeras to ft tsf scion plants. First, the expression of FT/TSF chimeric proteins in the rootstock was confirmed (Fig. 3A). A striking change was observed in the flowering time of the scion plants grafted to rootstocks overexpressing TFT, in which Region II of TSF was substituted for Region II of FT (Fig. 3B). Many of the ft tsf/TFT lines showed flowering times that were intermediate between those of ft tsf/FFF and ft tsf/TTT lines, suggesting that TFT protein may move to the shoot apex to induce early flowering. However, grafting to plants expressing TTF and FTT still resulted in late flowering in the ft tsf scion, similar to that seen with TTT, indicating that substitution of Region I and III did not affect flowering time. It should be noted that since overexpression of FTT was slightly less effective than overexpression of other chimeric genes (Fig. 2), we cannot exclude the possibility that FTT protein is partially functional and this may contribute to the failure to accelerate the flowering time of scion plants. Interestingly, grafting of FFT, FTF, and TFF resulted in early flowering, similar to that seen for FFF. In particular, grafting of plants expressing FTF, the opposite construct of TFT, did not cause a delay in flowering time. This indicated that substitution of any single region of FT with TSF failed to change flowering time. In addition, consistent flowering time changes from ft tsf scion plants grafted to independent FTF- and TFT-overexpressing lines were observed (Supplementary Fig. S7).

Bottom Line: In plants, successful reproduction requires the proper timing of flowering under changing environmental conditions.Previous work has shown that FT is graft-transmissible; by contrast, this study did not detect movement of TSF from the roots into the shoot of the scion plants.Taking these results together, we propose that protein mobility of FT is higher than that of TSF, possibly due to a protein domain that confers mobility and/or protein stability.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Creative Research Initiatives, Department of Life Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, South Korea.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus