Limits...
Nicotine delivery, tolerability and reduction of smoking urge in smokers following short-term use of one brand of electronic cigarettes.

D'Ruiz CD, Graff DW, Yan XS - BMC Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: Significant (p < 0.05) increases in plasma nicotine concentrations occurred within 10 min of controlled e-cigarette use and significant (p < 0.001) reductions from baseline smoking urge were observed within 5 min.After completion of both sessions, significant smoking urge reduction persisted for most of the tested e-cigarettes, albeit at levels lower than that provided by the tobacco cigarette.Nicotine content, vehicle differences, and the presence of menthol did not significantly affect smoking urge reduction by the e-cigarettes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: ITG Brands, LLC, A.W. Spears Research Center, R&D, Department of Scientific Affairs, 420 N. English Street, P.O. Box 21688, Greensboro, NC, 27420-1688, USA. carl.d'ruiz@itgbrands.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: This randomized, partially single-blinded, 6-period crossover clinical study of adult smokers compared the nicotine pharmacokinetics, impacts on smoking urge and tolerability of various formulations of one brand of e-cigarettes with that of a tobacco cigarette.

Methods: Five e-cigarettes with different e-liquid formulations containing 1.6 % and 2.4 % nicotine and a conventional tobacco cigarette were randomized among 24 subjects under two exposure sessions consisting of a 30-min controlled and a one-hour ad lib use period to assess plasma nicotine levels, impacts on smoking urge and adverse events. The 30-min controlled use session comprised an intensive use of the e-cigarettes with a total of 50 puffs taken every 30 s for comparison to a single conventional cigarette having a typical machine-measured nicotine yield (~0.8 mg). Ad lib product use conditions provided insight into more naturalistic product use behaviors and their accompanying smoking urge reductions. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed by the Principal Investigator.

Results: Significant (p < 0.05) increases in plasma nicotine concentrations occurred within 10 min of controlled e-cigarette use and significant (p < 0.001) reductions from baseline smoking urge were observed within 5 min. E-cigarette and cigarette nicotine plasma levels were comparable for up to one hour of use. After both sessions (90 min), nicotine exposure was the highest for the cigarette, with all e-cigarettes showing 23 % to 53 % lower plasma concentrations. During controlled use, peak reduction in smoking urge for e-cigs occurred later than for the cigarette. After completion of both sessions, significant smoking urge reduction persisted for most of the tested e-cigarettes, albeit at levels lower than that provided by the tobacco cigarette. Nicotine content, vehicle differences, and the presence of menthol did not significantly affect smoking urge reduction by the e-cigarettes. No subjects were discontinued due to AEs. The most frequently reported AEs events included cough, throat irritation, headache, and dizziness.

Conclusions: Blood plasma nicotine levels obtained from short-term use of e-cigarettes containing 1.6 % and 2.4 % nicotine were significant, but lower than those of conventional tobacco cigarettes, yet the reduction in craving symptoms were broadly comparable. The types of AEs were consistent with other research studies of longer duration that have reported that use of e-cigarettes by adult smokers is well-tolerated.

Trial registration: http://ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02210754 . Registered 8 August 2014.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean Plasma Nicotine Concentration Versus Time
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588874&req=5

Fig1: Mean Plasma Nicotine Concentration Versus Time

Mentions: The mean plasma nicotine concentration-time profiles are presented in Fig. 1. Baseline nicotine concentrations were below the limit of quantification in the majority of subjects and mean baseline nicotine concentrations were comparable across study products, all representing less than half the limit of quantification of 0.200 ng/mL. During the controlled use period, mean concentrations increased peaked immediately after use of the single tobacco cigarette (p < 0.05 compared to baseline) and then steadily decreased until reaching a minimum at the end of the period. For all e-cigarettes, nicotine plasma absorption was slower, with mean concentrations steadily increasing with continued product use and peaking at the end of the period. Usage of the study e-cigarettes resulted in statistically significant (p < 0.05) increases from baseline in nicotine concentration as soon as 5 min following the start of product use with the exception of the 1.6 % nicotine product with glycerin, which also reached statistical significance after 10 min of use. Plasma nicotine concentrations steadily increased during the one-hour ad lib use of the tobacco cigarettes, whereas ad lib use of the e-cigarettes resulted in plasma nicotine concentrations that increased during the first 45 min and then plateaued during the last 15 min.Fig. 1


Nicotine delivery, tolerability and reduction of smoking urge in smokers following short-term use of one brand of electronic cigarettes.

D'Ruiz CD, Graff DW, Yan XS - BMC Public Health (2015)

Mean Plasma Nicotine Concentration Versus Time
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588874&req=5

Fig1: Mean Plasma Nicotine Concentration Versus Time
Mentions: The mean plasma nicotine concentration-time profiles are presented in Fig. 1. Baseline nicotine concentrations were below the limit of quantification in the majority of subjects and mean baseline nicotine concentrations were comparable across study products, all representing less than half the limit of quantification of 0.200 ng/mL. During the controlled use period, mean concentrations increased peaked immediately after use of the single tobacco cigarette (p < 0.05 compared to baseline) and then steadily decreased until reaching a minimum at the end of the period. For all e-cigarettes, nicotine plasma absorption was slower, with mean concentrations steadily increasing with continued product use and peaking at the end of the period. Usage of the study e-cigarettes resulted in statistically significant (p < 0.05) increases from baseline in nicotine concentration as soon as 5 min following the start of product use with the exception of the 1.6 % nicotine product with glycerin, which also reached statistical significance after 10 min of use. Plasma nicotine concentrations steadily increased during the one-hour ad lib use of the tobacco cigarettes, whereas ad lib use of the e-cigarettes resulted in plasma nicotine concentrations that increased during the first 45 min and then plateaued during the last 15 min.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Significant (p < 0.05) increases in plasma nicotine concentrations occurred within 10 min of controlled e-cigarette use and significant (p < 0.001) reductions from baseline smoking urge were observed within 5 min.After completion of both sessions, significant smoking urge reduction persisted for most of the tested e-cigarettes, albeit at levels lower than that provided by the tobacco cigarette.Nicotine content, vehicle differences, and the presence of menthol did not significantly affect smoking urge reduction by the e-cigarettes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: ITG Brands, LLC, A.W. Spears Research Center, R&D, Department of Scientific Affairs, 420 N. English Street, P.O. Box 21688, Greensboro, NC, 27420-1688, USA. carl.d'ruiz@itgbrands.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: This randomized, partially single-blinded, 6-period crossover clinical study of adult smokers compared the nicotine pharmacokinetics, impacts on smoking urge and tolerability of various formulations of one brand of e-cigarettes with that of a tobacco cigarette.

Methods: Five e-cigarettes with different e-liquid formulations containing 1.6 % and 2.4 % nicotine and a conventional tobacco cigarette were randomized among 24 subjects under two exposure sessions consisting of a 30-min controlled and a one-hour ad lib use period to assess plasma nicotine levels, impacts on smoking urge and adverse events. The 30-min controlled use session comprised an intensive use of the e-cigarettes with a total of 50 puffs taken every 30 s for comparison to a single conventional cigarette having a typical machine-measured nicotine yield (~0.8 mg). Ad lib product use conditions provided insight into more naturalistic product use behaviors and their accompanying smoking urge reductions. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed by the Principal Investigator.

Results: Significant (p < 0.05) increases in plasma nicotine concentrations occurred within 10 min of controlled e-cigarette use and significant (p < 0.001) reductions from baseline smoking urge were observed within 5 min. E-cigarette and cigarette nicotine plasma levels were comparable for up to one hour of use. After both sessions (90 min), nicotine exposure was the highest for the cigarette, with all e-cigarettes showing 23 % to 53 % lower plasma concentrations. During controlled use, peak reduction in smoking urge for e-cigs occurred later than for the cigarette. After completion of both sessions, significant smoking urge reduction persisted for most of the tested e-cigarettes, albeit at levels lower than that provided by the tobacco cigarette. Nicotine content, vehicle differences, and the presence of menthol did not significantly affect smoking urge reduction by the e-cigarettes. No subjects were discontinued due to AEs. The most frequently reported AEs events included cough, throat irritation, headache, and dizziness.

Conclusions: Blood plasma nicotine levels obtained from short-term use of e-cigarettes containing 1.6 % and 2.4 % nicotine were significant, but lower than those of conventional tobacco cigarettes, yet the reduction in craving symptoms were broadly comparable. The types of AEs were consistent with other research studies of longer duration that have reported that use of e-cigarettes by adult smokers is well-tolerated.

Trial registration: http://ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02210754 . Registered 8 August 2014.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus