Type and amount of dietary protein in the treatment of metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.
Bottom Line: Diets were compared across 3 phases of energy balance: 5 wk of controlled (all foods provided) weight maintenance (WM), 6 wk of controlled weight loss (minimum 500-kcal/d deficit) including exercise (WL), and 12 wk of prescribed, free-living weight loss (FL).After WM, all groups had a MetS prevalence of 80-90% [healthy American diet (HAD) compared with WM, P = NS], which decreased to 50-60% after WL and was maintained through FL (HAD, WM vs WL, FL, P < 0.01).Weight loss was the primary modifier of MetS resolution in our study population regardless of protein source or amount.
Affiliation: School of Pharmacy & Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia; and Department of Nutritional Sciences and.Show MeSH
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Mentions: Primary and secondary endpoints are presented in Table 6. A significant main effect of phase (P < 0.01) was observed for all endpoints except for insulin. Dietary changes implemented during the WM phase did not reduce the number of MetS criteria per participant (HAD compared with WM, P = NS). MetS criteria decreased after the WL phase (HAD compared with WL, P < 0.01), and the changes were maintained during the FL phase (HAD compared with FL, P < 0.01). The prevalence of MetS was 100% in all groups at screening, but the prevalence in the BOLD group dropped to 70%, BOLD+ to 81%, and M-DASH to 90% after the HAD phase (NS between groups, Figure 3). After the WM phase, all groups had a MetS prevalence of 80–90%, which decreased significantly to 50–60% after WL and maintained through FL (χ2 for phase, P < 0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that weight loss (HAD or WM to WL and HAD or WM to FL) but not diet was significantly associated with resolution of MetS (Table 7). Every 1% reduction in body weight (from HAD to WL) was associated with a 39% increase in the odds of having a resolution of MetS, holding the other independent variables constant. A stronger relation was observed for changes in body weight after the WL phase (i.e., WM to WL) and MetS resolution: every 1% reduction in body weight was associated with an 88% increase in the odds of having a resolution of MetS.
Affiliation: School of Pharmacy & Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia; and Department of Nutritional Sciences and.