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Germline Modification and Engineering in Avian Species.

Lee HJ, Lee HC, Han JY - Mol. Cells (2015)

Bottom Line: The recently reported programmed genome editing technology that can induce gene modification at a target locus in an efficient and precise manner facilitates establishment of animal models.In this regard, the demand for genome-edited avian species, which are some of the most suitable model animals due to their unique embryonic development, has also increased.Here, we discuss recent progress in genome modification technology in avian species and its applications and future strategies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921, Korea.

ABSTRACT
Production of genome-edited animals using germline-competent cells and genetic modification tools has provided opportunities for investigation of biological mechanisms in various organisms. The recently reported programmed genome editing technology that can induce gene modification at a target locus in an efficient and precise manner facilitates establishment of animal models. In this regard, the demand for genome-edited avian species, which are some of the most suitable model animals due to their unique embryonic development, has also increased. Furthermore, germline chimera production through long-term culture of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) has facilitated research on production of genome-edited chickens. Thus, use of avian germline modification is promising for development of novel avian models for research of disease control and various biological mechanisms. Here, we discuss recent progress in genome modification technology in avian species and its applications and future strategies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Applications of genome-edited chickens in avian influenza (AI) resistance and egg protein modification. (A) CRISPR/Cas9 system-mediated viral RNA recognition and degradation. Transgenic chickens expressing CRISPR/Cas9 elements specifically targeting AI viral RNA segments exhibit AI resistance. (B) Genome modification and engineering of egg protein-coding genes. Eggs laid by genome-edited chickens could be used for production of functional proteins.
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f3-molce-38-9-743: Applications of genome-edited chickens in avian influenza (AI) resistance and egg protein modification. (A) CRISPR/Cas9 system-mediated viral RNA recognition and degradation. Transgenic chickens expressing CRISPR/Cas9 elements specifically targeting AI viral RNA segments exhibit AI resistance. (B) Genome modification and engineering of egg protein-coding genes. Eggs laid by genome-edited chickens could be used for production of functional proteins.

Mentions: One example is genome-edited avians used for disease control. At present, not only global climate change but also disease pandemics threaten the lives of wild animals. In particular, epidemic avian influenza (AI) mediated by migratory birds is a major cause of death among avian species, and mutations can enable this virus to infect other animals, including humans (Schrauwen and Fouchier, 2014). Diverse approaches have been used to preserve avian genetic resources from potential threats. However, no definitive method has been presented. Germline modification and engineering represent a novel approach to establish disease-resistant avian lines. Indeed, genome-edited chickens expressing shRNA specifically targeting viral RNA polymerase activity resulted in reduced AI viral transmission (Lyall et al., 2011). This suggests germline genome modification of avian species to be an alternative method for addressing viral disease pandemics. Also, the recently developed CRISPR/Cas9 system, which recognizes and cleaves single-stranded RNA (Fig. 3), and inducible expression of viral proteins using the piggyBac system are expected to be utilized for production of disease-resistant avian lines (O’Connell et al., 2014; Park and Han, 2012). Germline modification will be utilized not only for avian diseases but also for human diseases, such as cancer. In particular, chicken ovarian cancer has histological, morphological and molecular similarities with human ovarian cancer that make it a suitable model for the latter (Hawkridge, 2014). Development of novel avian disease models using germline modification technology could contribute to our understanding of ovarian cancer at the molecular level.


Germline Modification and Engineering in Avian Species.

Lee HJ, Lee HC, Han JY - Mol. Cells (2015)

Applications of genome-edited chickens in avian influenza (AI) resistance and egg protein modification. (A) CRISPR/Cas9 system-mediated viral RNA recognition and degradation. Transgenic chickens expressing CRISPR/Cas9 elements specifically targeting AI viral RNA segments exhibit AI resistance. (B) Genome modification and engineering of egg protein-coding genes. Eggs laid by genome-edited chickens could be used for production of functional proteins.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588716&req=5

f3-molce-38-9-743: Applications of genome-edited chickens in avian influenza (AI) resistance and egg protein modification. (A) CRISPR/Cas9 system-mediated viral RNA recognition and degradation. Transgenic chickens expressing CRISPR/Cas9 elements specifically targeting AI viral RNA segments exhibit AI resistance. (B) Genome modification and engineering of egg protein-coding genes. Eggs laid by genome-edited chickens could be used for production of functional proteins.
Mentions: One example is genome-edited avians used for disease control. At present, not only global climate change but also disease pandemics threaten the lives of wild animals. In particular, epidemic avian influenza (AI) mediated by migratory birds is a major cause of death among avian species, and mutations can enable this virus to infect other animals, including humans (Schrauwen and Fouchier, 2014). Diverse approaches have been used to preserve avian genetic resources from potential threats. However, no definitive method has been presented. Germline modification and engineering represent a novel approach to establish disease-resistant avian lines. Indeed, genome-edited chickens expressing shRNA specifically targeting viral RNA polymerase activity resulted in reduced AI viral transmission (Lyall et al., 2011). This suggests germline genome modification of avian species to be an alternative method for addressing viral disease pandemics. Also, the recently developed CRISPR/Cas9 system, which recognizes and cleaves single-stranded RNA (Fig. 3), and inducible expression of viral proteins using the piggyBac system are expected to be utilized for production of disease-resistant avian lines (O’Connell et al., 2014; Park and Han, 2012). Germline modification will be utilized not only for avian diseases but also for human diseases, such as cancer. In particular, chicken ovarian cancer has histological, morphological and molecular similarities with human ovarian cancer that make it a suitable model for the latter (Hawkridge, 2014). Development of novel avian disease models using germline modification technology could contribute to our understanding of ovarian cancer at the molecular level.

Bottom Line: The recently reported programmed genome editing technology that can induce gene modification at a target locus in an efficient and precise manner facilitates establishment of animal models.In this regard, the demand for genome-edited avian species, which are some of the most suitable model animals due to their unique embryonic development, has also increased.Here, we discuss recent progress in genome modification technology in avian species and its applications and future strategies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921, Korea.

ABSTRACT
Production of genome-edited animals using germline-competent cells and genetic modification tools has provided opportunities for investigation of biological mechanisms in various organisms. The recently reported programmed genome editing technology that can induce gene modification at a target locus in an efficient and precise manner facilitates establishment of animal models. In this regard, the demand for genome-edited avian species, which are some of the most suitable model animals due to their unique embryonic development, has also increased. Furthermore, germline chimera production through long-term culture of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) has facilitated research on production of genome-edited chickens. Thus, use of avian germline modification is promising for development of novel avian models for research of disease control and various biological mechanisms. Here, we discuss recent progress in genome modification technology in avian species and its applications and future strategies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus