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Emerging spatial patterns in Antarctic prokaryotes.

Chong CW, Pearce DA, Convey P - Front Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Bacterial dispersal mechanisms and colonization patterns remain largely unaddressed, although evidence for regional evolutionary differentiation is rapidly accruing and, with this, there is increasing appreciation of patterns in regional bacterial biogeography in this large part of the globe.In this review, we set out to describe the state of knowledge of Antarctic prokaryote diversity patterns, drawing analogy with those of eukaryote groups where appropriate.Based on our synthesis, it is clear that spatial patterns of Antarctic prokaryotes can be unique at local scales, while the limited evidence available to date supports the group exhibiting overall regional biogeographical patterns similar to the eukaryotes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Life Sciences, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur Malaysia ; National Antarctic Research Center, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Recent advances in knowledge of patterns of biogeography in terrestrial eukaryotic organisms have led to a fundamental paradigm shift in understanding of the controls and history of life on land in Antarctica, and its interactions over the long term with the glaciological and geological processes that have shaped the continent. However, while it has long been recognized that the terrestrial ecosystems of Antarctica are dominated by microbes and their processes, knowledge of microbial diversity and distributions has lagged far behind that of the macroscopic eukaryote organisms. Increasing human contact with and activity in the continent is leading to risks of biological contamination and change in a region whose isolation has protected it for millions of years at least; these risks may be particularly acute for microbial communities which have, as yet, received scant recognition and attention. Even a matter apparently as straightforward as Protected Area designation in Antarctica requires robust biodiversity data which, in most parts of the continent, remain almost completely unavailable. A range of important contributing factors mean that it is now timely to reconsider the state of knowledge of Antarctic terrestrial prokaryotes. Rapid advances in molecular biological approaches are increasingly demonstrating that bacterial diversity in Antarctica may be far greater than previously thought, and that there is overlap in the environmental controls affecting both Antarctic prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities. Bacterial dispersal mechanisms and colonization patterns remain largely unaddressed, although evidence for regional evolutionary differentiation is rapidly accruing and, with this, there is increasing appreciation of patterns in regional bacterial biogeography in this large part of the globe. In this review, we set out to describe the state of knowledge of Antarctic prokaryote diversity patterns, drawing analogy with those of eukaryote groups where appropriate. Based on our synthesis, it is clear that spatial patterns of Antarctic prokaryotes can be unique at local scales, while the limited evidence available to date supports the group exhibiting overall regional biogeographical patterns similar to the eukaryotes. We further consider the applicability of the concept of "functional redundancy" for the Antarctic microbial community and highlight the requirements for proper consideration of their important and distinctive roles in Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Regional bacterial biogeography pattern based on the 16S rRNA gene data information. A strong genetic separation was detected in the overall soil bacterial community composition and Bacteroidetes assemblages retrieved between zone A (yellow) and zone B (purple; Chong et al., 2012b), representing different sides of the “Gressitt Line” (dotted line). A similar pattern was observed in bacterial isolates affiliated with the genera Flavobacterium and Arthrobacter (Chong et al., 2013).
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Figure 1: Regional bacterial biogeography pattern based on the 16S rRNA gene data information. A strong genetic separation was detected in the overall soil bacterial community composition and Bacteroidetes assemblages retrieved between zone A (yellow) and zone B (purple; Chong et al., 2012b), representing different sides of the “Gressitt Line” (dotted line). A similar pattern was observed in bacterial isolates affiliated with the genera Flavobacterium and Arthrobacter (Chong et al., 2013).

Mentions: At a regional scale, geographical isolation clearly contributes to Antarctic microbial community diversification (Papke and Ward, 2004; Bahl et al., 2011). Indeed, simply by using the pragmatic and non-scientifically established geographical sectors of Antarctica outlined by Pugh and Convey (2008), Chong et al. (2012b) showed significant genetic separation in 16S rRNA gene sequences between soil bacterial communities obtained from the different sectors, a separation that was particularly apparent in Flavobacterium and Arthrobacter (Figure 1) although, again, such conclusions may be influenced by the application of inconsistent methodologies. However, the pattern found was also consistent with the Gressitt Line of Chown and Convey (2007), potentially suggesting the presence of a “universal” spatial constraint for both Antarctic higher and lower organisms.


Emerging spatial patterns in Antarctic prokaryotes.

Chong CW, Pearce DA, Convey P - Front Microbiol (2015)

Regional bacterial biogeography pattern based on the 16S rRNA gene data information. A strong genetic separation was detected in the overall soil bacterial community composition and Bacteroidetes assemblages retrieved between zone A (yellow) and zone B (purple; Chong et al., 2012b), representing different sides of the “Gressitt Line” (dotted line). A similar pattern was observed in bacterial isolates affiliated with the genera Flavobacterium and Arthrobacter (Chong et al., 2013).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588704&req=5

Figure 1: Regional bacterial biogeography pattern based on the 16S rRNA gene data information. A strong genetic separation was detected in the overall soil bacterial community composition and Bacteroidetes assemblages retrieved between zone A (yellow) and zone B (purple; Chong et al., 2012b), representing different sides of the “Gressitt Line” (dotted line). A similar pattern was observed in bacterial isolates affiliated with the genera Flavobacterium and Arthrobacter (Chong et al., 2013).
Mentions: At a regional scale, geographical isolation clearly contributes to Antarctic microbial community diversification (Papke and Ward, 2004; Bahl et al., 2011). Indeed, simply by using the pragmatic and non-scientifically established geographical sectors of Antarctica outlined by Pugh and Convey (2008), Chong et al. (2012b) showed significant genetic separation in 16S rRNA gene sequences between soil bacterial communities obtained from the different sectors, a separation that was particularly apparent in Flavobacterium and Arthrobacter (Figure 1) although, again, such conclusions may be influenced by the application of inconsistent methodologies. However, the pattern found was also consistent with the Gressitt Line of Chown and Convey (2007), potentially suggesting the presence of a “universal” spatial constraint for both Antarctic higher and lower organisms.

Bottom Line: Bacterial dispersal mechanisms and colonization patterns remain largely unaddressed, although evidence for regional evolutionary differentiation is rapidly accruing and, with this, there is increasing appreciation of patterns in regional bacterial biogeography in this large part of the globe.In this review, we set out to describe the state of knowledge of Antarctic prokaryote diversity patterns, drawing analogy with those of eukaryote groups where appropriate.Based on our synthesis, it is clear that spatial patterns of Antarctic prokaryotes can be unique at local scales, while the limited evidence available to date supports the group exhibiting overall regional biogeographical patterns similar to the eukaryotes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Life Sciences, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur Malaysia ; National Antarctic Research Center, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Recent advances in knowledge of patterns of biogeography in terrestrial eukaryotic organisms have led to a fundamental paradigm shift in understanding of the controls and history of life on land in Antarctica, and its interactions over the long term with the glaciological and geological processes that have shaped the continent. However, while it has long been recognized that the terrestrial ecosystems of Antarctica are dominated by microbes and their processes, knowledge of microbial diversity and distributions has lagged far behind that of the macroscopic eukaryote organisms. Increasing human contact with and activity in the continent is leading to risks of biological contamination and change in a region whose isolation has protected it for millions of years at least; these risks may be particularly acute for microbial communities which have, as yet, received scant recognition and attention. Even a matter apparently as straightforward as Protected Area designation in Antarctica requires robust biodiversity data which, in most parts of the continent, remain almost completely unavailable. A range of important contributing factors mean that it is now timely to reconsider the state of knowledge of Antarctic terrestrial prokaryotes. Rapid advances in molecular biological approaches are increasingly demonstrating that bacterial diversity in Antarctica may be far greater than previously thought, and that there is overlap in the environmental controls affecting both Antarctic prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities. Bacterial dispersal mechanisms and colonization patterns remain largely unaddressed, although evidence for regional evolutionary differentiation is rapidly accruing and, with this, there is increasing appreciation of patterns in regional bacterial biogeography in this large part of the globe. In this review, we set out to describe the state of knowledge of Antarctic prokaryote diversity patterns, drawing analogy with those of eukaryote groups where appropriate. Based on our synthesis, it is clear that spatial patterns of Antarctic prokaryotes can be unique at local scales, while the limited evidence available to date supports the group exhibiting overall regional biogeographical patterns similar to the eukaryotes. We further consider the applicability of the concept of "functional redundancy" for the Antarctic microbial community and highlight the requirements for proper consideration of their important and distinctive roles in Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus