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Origin of worldwide cultivated barley revealed by NAM-1 gene and grain protein content.

Wang Y, Ren X, Sun D, Sun G - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Our results showed Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Near Eastern barley, and confirmed that Tibet is one of the origin and domestication centers for cultivated barley, and in turn supported a polyphyletic origin of domesticated barley.Two unique haplotypes (Hap2 and Hap7) caused by a base mutations (at position 544) in the coding region of the NAM-1 gene might have a significant impact on the GPC.Single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes of NAM-1 associated with GPC in barley could provide a useful method for screening GPC in barley germplasm.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University Wuhan, China.

ABSTRACT
The origin, evolution, and distribution of cultivated barley provides powerful insights into the historic origin and early spread of agrarian culture. Here, population-based genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine the evolution and origin of barley and how domestication and subsequent introgression have affected the genetic diversity and changes in cultivated barley on a worldwide scale. A set of worldwide cultivated and wild barleys from Asia and Tibet of China were analyzed using the sequences for NAM-1 gene and gene-associated traits-grain protein content (GPC). Our results showed Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Near Eastern barley, and confirmed that Tibet is one of the origin and domestication centers for cultivated barley, and in turn supported a polyphyletic origin of domesticated barley. Comparison of haplotype composition among geographic regions revealed gene flow between Eastern and Western barley populations, suggesting that the Silk Road might have played a crucial role in the spread of genes. The GPC in the 118 cultivated and 93 wild barley accessions ranged from 6.73 to 12.35% with a mean of 9.43%. Overall, wild barley had higher averaged GPC (10.44%) than cultivated barley. Two unique haplotypes (Hap2 and Hap7) caused by a base mutations (at position 544) in the coding region of the NAM-1 gene might have a significant impact on the GPC. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes of NAM-1 associated with GPC in barley could provide a useful method for screening GPC in barley germplasm. The Tibetan wild accessions with lower GPC could be useful for malt barley breeding.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Boxplot of grain protein content (GPC) variation among 176 barley accessions grouped according to the haplotype of Hap2 and Hap7. Lines across the boxes depict the medians. Boxes indicate the interquartile range. Whiskers represent 95% confidence intervals.
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Figure 4: Boxplot of grain protein content (GPC) variation among 176 barley accessions grouped according to the haplotype of Hap2 and Hap7. Lines across the boxes depict the medians. Boxes indicate the interquartile range. Whiskers represent 95% confidence intervals.

Mentions: To determine association between SNP of NAM-1 and GPC among barley populations, a sequence from NCBI (accession number DQ869678) was used as a reference to identify SNP in our populations. The SNPs identified were summarized in Table 4. Three SNPs were recognized in the Tibetan wild barley population and are located at position 375, 544, and 1190, respectively; the SNPs at position 544 and 1190 are within the coding sequence. Seven SNPs were found in the Southwest Asian wild barley population, of which two SNPs (position 473 and 823) were located in a non-coding region, and five SNPs (position 507, 544, 616, 1190, and 1253) in coding; Only one SNP at position 544 within the coding sequence was obtained in the Central Asian wild barley population. Two SNPs were identified (position 507 and 544) from landraces, with one in a coding region. The haplotype 2 of NAM-1 was associated with the highest GPC, while the haplotype 7 of NAM-1 with lowest GPC (Figure 4).


Origin of worldwide cultivated barley revealed by NAM-1 gene and grain protein content.

Wang Y, Ren X, Sun D, Sun G - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Boxplot of grain protein content (GPC) variation among 176 barley accessions grouped according to the haplotype of Hap2 and Hap7. Lines across the boxes depict the medians. Boxes indicate the interquartile range. Whiskers represent 95% confidence intervals.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588695&req=5

Figure 4: Boxplot of grain protein content (GPC) variation among 176 barley accessions grouped according to the haplotype of Hap2 and Hap7. Lines across the boxes depict the medians. Boxes indicate the interquartile range. Whiskers represent 95% confidence intervals.
Mentions: To determine association between SNP of NAM-1 and GPC among barley populations, a sequence from NCBI (accession number DQ869678) was used as a reference to identify SNP in our populations. The SNPs identified were summarized in Table 4. Three SNPs were recognized in the Tibetan wild barley population and are located at position 375, 544, and 1190, respectively; the SNPs at position 544 and 1190 are within the coding sequence. Seven SNPs were found in the Southwest Asian wild barley population, of which two SNPs (position 473 and 823) were located in a non-coding region, and five SNPs (position 507, 544, 616, 1190, and 1253) in coding; Only one SNP at position 544 within the coding sequence was obtained in the Central Asian wild barley population. Two SNPs were identified (position 507 and 544) from landraces, with one in a coding region. The haplotype 2 of NAM-1 was associated with the highest GPC, while the haplotype 7 of NAM-1 with lowest GPC (Figure 4).

Bottom Line: Our results showed Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Near Eastern barley, and confirmed that Tibet is one of the origin and domestication centers for cultivated barley, and in turn supported a polyphyletic origin of domesticated barley.Two unique haplotypes (Hap2 and Hap7) caused by a base mutations (at position 544) in the coding region of the NAM-1 gene might have a significant impact on the GPC.Single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes of NAM-1 associated with GPC in barley could provide a useful method for screening GPC in barley germplasm.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University Wuhan, China.

ABSTRACT
The origin, evolution, and distribution of cultivated barley provides powerful insights into the historic origin and early spread of agrarian culture. Here, population-based genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine the evolution and origin of barley and how domestication and subsequent introgression have affected the genetic diversity and changes in cultivated barley on a worldwide scale. A set of worldwide cultivated and wild barleys from Asia and Tibet of China were analyzed using the sequences for NAM-1 gene and gene-associated traits-grain protein content (GPC). Our results showed Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Near Eastern barley, and confirmed that Tibet is one of the origin and domestication centers for cultivated barley, and in turn supported a polyphyletic origin of domesticated barley. Comparison of haplotype composition among geographic regions revealed gene flow between Eastern and Western barley populations, suggesting that the Silk Road might have played a crucial role in the spread of genes. The GPC in the 118 cultivated and 93 wild barley accessions ranged from 6.73 to 12.35% with a mean of 9.43%. Overall, wild barley had higher averaged GPC (10.44%) than cultivated barley. Two unique haplotypes (Hap2 and Hap7) caused by a base mutations (at position 544) in the coding region of the NAM-1 gene might have a significant impact on the GPC. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes of NAM-1 associated with GPC in barley could provide a useful method for screening GPC in barley germplasm. The Tibetan wild accessions with lower GPC could be useful for malt barley breeding.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus