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Evolving perceptual biases for antisynchrony: a form of temporal coordination beyond synchrony.

Ravignani A - Front Neurosci (2015)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Artificial Intelligence Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel Brussels, Belgium ; Sensory and Cognitive Ecology Group, Universität Rostock Rostock, Germany.

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On a short timescale, group vocalizations, movements or visual displays can exhibit temporal interdependence... Synchronous behavior has received significantly more attention than all other forms of animal coordination... Antisynchrony (i.e., perfect alternation) is produced in nature, but only recently perceptual biases toward antisynchrony were independently found in human infants and fiddler crabs... Crickets chorus in synchrony, fireflies flash likewise, all with millisecond accuracy (Buck and Buck, ; Buck, ; Sismondo, ; Hartbauer and Römer, )... Synchrony does not entail individual intentions to coordinate but often arises as an epiphenomenal by-product of selfish behavior (Greenfield and Roizen, ): Individuals want to be noticed... It is hence fortunate that cognitive neuroscientists, mutually unbeknown to animal behavior researchers, have also just found biases for antisynchrony in human infants... Recent experiments in human infants started clarifying the developmental pathways of perceptual biases for coordination, adding antisynchrony to the repertoire. 14-month-old infants were held by an experimenter and exposed to different interpersonal coordination scenarios... In particular, infants exhibited more spontaneous, but not delayed, helping behavior: synchrony and antisynchrony affected early stages of infants' sensory perception, but ceased to influence social behavior as soon as infants exchanged gaze or vocalizations with an adult... This suggests that Cirelli et al.'s experimental setup (i) tapped into early, possibly evolutionary ancient neuroethological traits (Trainor, ) dating to our last common ancestor with great apes, or earlier (Fitch, ; Giacoma et al., ; Hagmann and Cook, ; Dunbar, ; Gamba et al., ; Dufour et al., ; Large and Gray, ; Yu and Tomonaga, ), hence their results could help uncover the phylogenetic bases of rhythm; (ii) engaged human participants' subcortical brain structures [such as basal ganglia, usually involved in perception of rhythmic patterns (Grahn and Brett, ; Kotz and Schmidt-Kassow, )], again suggesting that preferences for (anti)synchrony are likely to be found in other animals due to common ancestry... Now, every signaling system relies on a perceptual repertoire, which can be exploited for communication: biases toward particular temporal coordination patterns, like synchrony and antisynchrony, could have offered such fertile perceptual substrate for a joint group signaling system... The hypothesis that (anti)synchrony mediated group coordination and music origins is supported by another “evolutionary leftover” found in the auditory domain... Several animals show antiphonal interactions (Ravignani et al., ), which at least in a frog species (Hyla japonica) seem to reach the perfect alternation of antisynchronous calling (Aihara et al., )... However, group production of antisynchronous signals does not imply its perception... Building on behavioral results, the long term goal will be to uncover the neuro-(epi)genetics (Lachmann and Jablonka, ; Petkov and Jarvis, ; Bronfman et al., ; Wilkins et al., ; Jablonka and Lamb, ) of temporal coordination.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Synthetic representation of synchronous (top row) and antisynchronous (bottom row) coordinated behaviors. Male robotic fiddler crabs wave their larger claw in (A) synchrony or (E) antisynchrony (Kahn et al., 2014). Similarly, two human adults, one holding an infant, move up, and down to music in (B) synchrony, as if each was dancing with her own mirror image or (F) antisynchrony, so that one bends her knees while the other stands straight, and vice-versa (Cirelli et al., 2014). Physical oscillators, like pendulums, can resonate at the same frequency; in addition, (C) their phase delay can be 0, making them synchronous, or (G) half of the oscillatory period, namely π, corresponding to antisynchrony (Strogatz and Stewart, 1993). Events happening in time can be represented graphically by plotting the displacement x–be it the movement of a human leg, a crab's claw or a pendulum–over time t. Plotting time series in this way makes periodic phenomena readily recognizable by their regularly repeating oscillations. In particular, (D) synchronous phenomena produce similar sinusoidal waves which can be graphically overlapped, while (H) antisynchronous phenomena also produce similar waves, which can however only be overlapped by (phase) shifting one of the sinusoids over time (leftwards or rightwards). Key findings and research efforts to date have been focusing on one particular coordination mode: synchrony (Buck and Buck, 1968; Tuttle and Ryan, 1982; Winfree, 1986; Ermentrout, 1991; Grafe, 1999; Patel et al., 2009; Hasegawa et al., 2011; Merchant et al., 2011; Hattori et al., 2013; Aihara et al., 2014; Fuhrmann et al., 2014; Gamba et al., 2014; Ravignani, 2014; Ravignani et al., 2014a,b; Large and Gray, 2015; Yu and Tomonaga, 2015). However, synchronous behavior is only one outcome of coordinated interactions (Morris et al., 1978; Haimoff, 1986; Grafe, 1999; Bermejo and Omedes, 2000; Yosida and Okanoya, 2005; Mann et al., 2006; Brumm and Slater, 2007; Yosida et al., 2007; Hall, 2009; Ravignani et al., 2013; Aihara et al., 2014; ten Cate, 2014; Hattori et al., 2015); for instance, several species show antiphonal (constant lag) coordination (Sismondo, 1990; Yosida and Okanoya, 2005; Mann et al., 2006; Yosida et al., 2007; Inoue et al., 2013).
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Figure 1: Synthetic representation of synchronous (top row) and antisynchronous (bottom row) coordinated behaviors. Male robotic fiddler crabs wave their larger claw in (A) synchrony or (E) antisynchrony (Kahn et al., 2014). Similarly, two human adults, one holding an infant, move up, and down to music in (B) synchrony, as if each was dancing with her own mirror image or (F) antisynchrony, so that one bends her knees while the other stands straight, and vice-versa (Cirelli et al., 2014). Physical oscillators, like pendulums, can resonate at the same frequency; in addition, (C) their phase delay can be 0, making them synchronous, or (G) half of the oscillatory period, namely π, corresponding to antisynchrony (Strogatz and Stewart, 1993). Events happening in time can be represented graphically by plotting the displacement x–be it the movement of a human leg, a crab's claw or a pendulum–over time t. Plotting time series in this way makes periodic phenomena readily recognizable by their regularly repeating oscillations. In particular, (D) synchronous phenomena produce similar sinusoidal waves which can be graphically overlapped, while (H) antisynchronous phenomena also produce similar waves, which can however only be overlapped by (phase) shifting one of the sinusoids over time (leftwards or rightwards). Key findings and research efforts to date have been focusing on one particular coordination mode: synchrony (Buck and Buck, 1968; Tuttle and Ryan, 1982; Winfree, 1986; Ermentrout, 1991; Grafe, 1999; Patel et al., 2009; Hasegawa et al., 2011; Merchant et al., 2011; Hattori et al., 2013; Aihara et al., 2014; Fuhrmann et al., 2014; Gamba et al., 2014; Ravignani, 2014; Ravignani et al., 2014a,b; Large and Gray, 2015; Yu and Tomonaga, 2015). However, synchronous behavior is only one outcome of coordinated interactions (Morris et al., 1978; Haimoff, 1986; Grafe, 1999; Bermejo and Omedes, 2000; Yosida and Okanoya, 2005; Mann et al., 2006; Brumm and Slater, 2007; Yosida et al., 2007; Hall, 2009; Ravignani et al., 2013; Aihara et al., 2014; ten Cate, 2014; Hattori et al., 2015); for instance, several species show antiphonal (constant lag) coordination (Sismondo, 1990; Yosida and Okanoya, 2005; Mann et al., 2006; Yosida et al., 2007; Inoue et al., 2013).

Mentions: Synchrony, when two or more events take place at exactly the same time, is the most ordered form of temporal coordination (Figures 1A–D, top row). Crickets chorus in synchrony, fireflies flash likewise, all with millisecond accuracy (Buck and Buck, 1968; Buck, 1988; Sismondo, 1990; Hartbauer and Römer, 2014). Synchrony does not entail individual intentions to coordinate but often arises as an epiphenomenal by-product of selfish behavior (Greenfield and Roizen, 1993): Individuals want to be noticed. The ecological, behavioral, and neural bases underpinning synchronous behavior have been intensively explored and are increasingly understood (Greenfield et al., 1997; Hartbauer et al., 2005; Fitch, 2015; Iversen et al., 2015).


Evolving perceptual biases for antisynchrony: a form of temporal coordination beyond synchrony.

Ravignani A - Front Neurosci (2015)

Synthetic representation of synchronous (top row) and antisynchronous (bottom row) coordinated behaviors. Male robotic fiddler crabs wave their larger claw in (A) synchrony or (E) antisynchrony (Kahn et al., 2014). Similarly, two human adults, one holding an infant, move up, and down to music in (B) synchrony, as if each was dancing with her own mirror image or (F) antisynchrony, so that one bends her knees while the other stands straight, and vice-versa (Cirelli et al., 2014). Physical oscillators, like pendulums, can resonate at the same frequency; in addition, (C) their phase delay can be 0, making them synchronous, or (G) half of the oscillatory period, namely π, corresponding to antisynchrony (Strogatz and Stewart, 1993). Events happening in time can be represented graphically by plotting the displacement x–be it the movement of a human leg, a crab's claw or a pendulum–over time t. Plotting time series in this way makes periodic phenomena readily recognizable by their regularly repeating oscillations. In particular, (D) synchronous phenomena produce similar sinusoidal waves which can be graphically overlapped, while (H) antisynchronous phenomena also produce similar waves, which can however only be overlapped by (phase) shifting one of the sinusoids over time (leftwards or rightwards). Key findings and research efforts to date have been focusing on one particular coordination mode: synchrony (Buck and Buck, 1968; Tuttle and Ryan, 1982; Winfree, 1986; Ermentrout, 1991; Grafe, 1999; Patel et al., 2009; Hasegawa et al., 2011; Merchant et al., 2011; Hattori et al., 2013; Aihara et al., 2014; Fuhrmann et al., 2014; Gamba et al., 2014; Ravignani, 2014; Ravignani et al., 2014a,b; Large and Gray, 2015; Yu and Tomonaga, 2015). However, synchronous behavior is only one outcome of coordinated interactions (Morris et al., 1978; Haimoff, 1986; Grafe, 1999; Bermejo and Omedes, 2000; Yosida and Okanoya, 2005; Mann et al., 2006; Brumm and Slater, 2007; Yosida et al., 2007; Hall, 2009; Ravignani et al., 2013; Aihara et al., 2014; ten Cate, 2014; Hattori et al., 2015); for instance, several species show antiphonal (constant lag) coordination (Sismondo, 1990; Yosida and Okanoya, 2005; Mann et al., 2006; Yosida et al., 2007; Inoue et al., 2013).
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Figure 1: Synthetic representation of synchronous (top row) and antisynchronous (bottom row) coordinated behaviors. Male robotic fiddler crabs wave their larger claw in (A) synchrony or (E) antisynchrony (Kahn et al., 2014). Similarly, two human adults, one holding an infant, move up, and down to music in (B) synchrony, as if each was dancing with her own mirror image or (F) antisynchrony, so that one bends her knees while the other stands straight, and vice-versa (Cirelli et al., 2014). Physical oscillators, like pendulums, can resonate at the same frequency; in addition, (C) their phase delay can be 0, making them synchronous, or (G) half of the oscillatory period, namely π, corresponding to antisynchrony (Strogatz and Stewart, 1993). Events happening in time can be represented graphically by plotting the displacement x–be it the movement of a human leg, a crab's claw or a pendulum–over time t. Plotting time series in this way makes periodic phenomena readily recognizable by their regularly repeating oscillations. In particular, (D) synchronous phenomena produce similar sinusoidal waves which can be graphically overlapped, while (H) antisynchronous phenomena also produce similar waves, which can however only be overlapped by (phase) shifting one of the sinusoids over time (leftwards or rightwards). Key findings and research efforts to date have been focusing on one particular coordination mode: synchrony (Buck and Buck, 1968; Tuttle and Ryan, 1982; Winfree, 1986; Ermentrout, 1991; Grafe, 1999; Patel et al., 2009; Hasegawa et al., 2011; Merchant et al., 2011; Hattori et al., 2013; Aihara et al., 2014; Fuhrmann et al., 2014; Gamba et al., 2014; Ravignani, 2014; Ravignani et al., 2014a,b; Large and Gray, 2015; Yu and Tomonaga, 2015). However, synchronous behavior is only one outcome of coordinated interactions (Morris et al., 1978; Haimoff, 1986; Grafe, 1999; Bermejo and Omedes, 2000; Yosida and Okanoya, 2005; Mann et al., 2006; Brumm and Slater, 2007; Yosida et al., 2007; Hall, 2009; Ravignani et al., 2013; Aihara et al., 2014; ten Cate, 2014; Hattori et al., 2015); for instance, several species show antiphonal (constant lag) coordination (Sismondo, 1990; Yosida and Okanoya, 2005; Mann et al., 2006; Yosida et al., 2007; Inoue et al., 2013).
Mentions: Synchrony, when two or more events take place at exactly the same time, is the most ordered form of temporal coordination (Figures 1A–D, top row). Crickets chorus in synchrony, fireflies flash likewise, all with millisecond accuracy (Buck and Buck, 1968; Buck, 1988; Sismondo, 1990; Hartbauer and Römer, 2014). Synchrony does not entail individual intentions to coordinate but often arises as an epiphenomenal by-product of selfish behavior (Greenfield and Roizen, 1993): Individuals want to be noticed. The ecological, behavioral, and neural bases underpinning synchronous behavior have been intensively explored and are increasingly understood (Greenfield et al., 1997; Hartbauer et al., 2005; Fitch, 2015; Iversen et al., 2015).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Artificial Intelligence Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel Brussels, Belgium ; Sensory and Cognitive Ecology Group, Universität Rostock Rostock, Germany.

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

On a short timescale, group vocalizations, movements or visual displays can exhibit temporal interdependence... Synchronous behavior has received significantly more attention than all other forms of animal coordination... Antisynchrony (i.e., perfect alternation) is produced in nature, but only recently perceptual biases toward antisynchrony were independently found in human infants and fiddler crabs... Crickets chorus in synchrony, fireflies flash likewise, all with millisecond accuracy (Buck and Buck, ; Buck, ; Sismondo, ; Hartbauer and Römer, )... Synchrony does not entail individual intentions to coordinate but often arises as an epiphenomenal by-product of selfish behavior (Greenfield and Roizen, ): Individuals want to be noticed... It is hence fortunate that cognitive neuroscientists, mutually unbeknown to animal behavior researchers, have also just found biases for antisynchrony in human infants... Recent experiments in human infants started clarifying the developmental pathways of perceptual biases for coordination, adding antisynchrony to the repertoire. 14-month-old infants were held by an experimenter and exposed to different interpersonal coordination scenarios... In particular, infants exhibited more spontaneous, but not delayed, helping behavior: synchrony and antisynchrony affected early stages of infants' sensory perception, but ceased to influence social behavior as soon as infants exchanged gaze or vocalizations with an adult... This suggests that Cirelli et al.'s experimental setup (i) tapped into early, possibly evolutionary ancient neuroethological traits (Trainor, ) dating to our last common ancestor with great apes, or earlier (Fitch, ; Giacoma et al., ; Hagmann and Cook, ; Dunbar, ; Gamba et al., ; Dufour et al., ; Large and Gray, ; Yu and Tomonaga, ), hence their results could help uncover the phylogenetic bases of rhythm; (ii) engaged human participants' subcortical brain structures [such as basal ganglia, usually involved in perception of rhythmic patterns (Grahn and Brett, ; Kotz and Schmidt-Kassow, )], again suggesting that preferences for (anti)synchrony are likely to be found in other animals due to common ancestry... Now, every signaling system relies on a perceptual repertoire, which can be exploited for communication: biases toward particular temporal coordination patterns, like synchrony and antisynchrony, could have offered such fertile perceptual substrate for a joint group signaling system... The hypothesis that (anti)synchrony mediated group coordination and music origins is supported by another “evolutionary leftover” found in the auditory domain... Several animals show antiphonal interactions (Ravignani et al., ), which at least in a frog species (Hyla japonica) seem to reach the perfect alternation of antisynchronous calling (Aihara et al., )... However, group production of antisynchronous signals does not imply its perception... Building on behavioral results, the long term goal will be to uncover the neuro-(epi)genetics (Lachmann and Jablonka, ; Petkov and Jarvis, ; Bronfman et al., ; Wilkins et al., ; Jablonka and Lamb, ) of temporal coordination.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus