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Comparison of soil microbial communities inhabiting vineyards and native sclerophyllous forests in central Chile.

Castañeda LE, Godoy K, Manzano M, Marquet PA, Barbosa O - Ecol Evol (2015)

Bottom Line: We found that the bacterial community changed between the sampled growing areas; however, the fungal community did not differ.At the local scale, our findings show that fungal communities differed between habitats because fungi species might be more sensitive to land-use change compared to bacterial species, as bacterial communities did not change between forests and vineyards.Finally, we focus our conclusions on the importance of naturally derived ecosystem services to vineyards.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Facultad de Ciencias Instituto de Ciencias Ambientales y Evolutivas Campus Isla Teja Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia Chile ; Instituto de Ecología & Biodiversidad (IEB-Chile) Casilla 653 Santiago Chile.

ABSTRACT
Natural ecosystems provide services to agriculture such as pest control, soil nutrients, and key microbial components. These services and others in turn provide essential elements that fuel biomass productivity. Responsible agricultural management and conservation of natural habitats can enhance these ecosystem services. Vineyards are currently driving land-use changes in many Mediterranean ecosystems. These land-use changes could have important effects on the supporting ecosystems services related to the soil properties and the microbial communities associated with forests and vineyard soils. Here, we explore soil bacterial and fungal communities present in sclerophyllous forests and organic vineyards from three different wine growing areas in central Chile. We employed terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) to describe the soil microbial communities inhabiting native forests and vineyards in central Chile. We found that the bacterial community changed between the sampled growing areas; however, the fungal community did not differ. At the local scale, our findings show that fungal communities differed between habitats because fungi species might be more sensitive to land-use change compared to bacterial species, as bacterial communities did not change between forests and vineyards. We discuss these findings based on the sensitivity of microbial communities to soil properties and land-use change. Finally, we focus our conclusions on the importance of naturally derived ecosystem services to vineyards.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Means (± standard error) of relative abundance of dominant bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in different growing areas (top), and dominant fungal OTUs in different habitats (bottom). The first 15 most abundant fragments are shown (bp: base pairs). Letters indicate a posteriori significant differences between growing areas (top) and habitats (bottom).
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ece31652-fig-0004: Means (± standard error) of relative abundance of dominant bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in different growing areas (top), and dominant fungal OTUs in different habitats (bottom). The first 15 most abundant fragments are shown (bp: base pairs). Letters indicate a posteriori significant differences between growing areas (top) and habitats (bottom).

Mentions: Using the presence and abundance of bacterial OTUs, we calculated richness, diversity (Shannon–Weaver index), and evenness for each soil sample collected from the sampled forests and vineyards in central Chile. Regarding the diversity indices, we did not find significant differences between the growing areas and habitats (Table 2). Conversely, PERMANOVA tests indicated that there were significant differences in the bacterial community structure of different growing areas (P = 0.004). The pairwise PERMANOVA comparisons showed that the bacterial community structure was significantly different between the north‐center (P = 0.013), north‐south (P = 0.034), and center‐south growing areas (P = 0.033). Soil pH had a strong effect on the differentiation between bacterial communities from northern versus central and southern locations, and correlations of 0.80 with NMDS1 and 0.63 with NMDS2 were found (POVERALL = 0.001, Fig. 2A). Differences between growing areas were also confirmed comparing OTU abundances. For instance, OTUs 93 and 486 were significantly more abundant in the northern growing area, whereas OTUs 65 and 153 were significant more abundant in the central and southern growing areas (Fig. 4A). Conversely, the bacterial communities were not different between the forests and vineyard habitats (PERMANOVA: P = 0.47). This is corroborated by the NMDS plots that show an overlap between bacterial communities from forests and vineyards in each growing area (Fig. 2B–D). We also found significant variation within habitats (PERMANOVA: P = 0.008).


Comparison of soil microbial communities inhabiting vineyards and native sclerophyllous forests in central Chile.

Castañeda LE, Godoy K, Manzano M, Marquet PA, Barbosa O - Ecol Evol (2015)

Means (± standard error) of relative abundance of dominant bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in different growing areas (top), and dominant fungal OTUs in different habitats (bottom). The first 15 most abundant fragments are shown (bp: base pairs). Letters indicate a posteriori significant differences between growing areas (top) and habitats (bottom).
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588659&req=5

ece31652-fig-0004: Means (± standard error) of relative abundance of dominant bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in different growing areas (top), and dominant fungal OTUs in different habitats (bottom). The first 15 most abundant fragments are shown (bp: base pairs). Letters indicate a posteriori significant differences between growing areas (top) and habitats (bottom).
Mentions: Using the presence and abundance of bacterial OTUs, we calculated richness, diversity (Shannon–Weaver index), and evenness for each soil sample collected from the sampled forests and vineyards in central Chile. Regarding the diversity indices, we did not find significant differences between the growing areas and habitats (Table 2). Conversely, PERMANOVA tests indicated that there were significant differences in the bacterial community structure of different growing areas (P = 0.004). The pairwise PERMANOVA comparisons showed that the bacterial community structure was significantly different between the north‐center (P = 0.013), north‐south (P = 0.034), and center‐south growing areas (P = 0.033). Soil pH had a strong effect on the differentiation between bacterial communities from northern versus central and southern locations, and correlations of 0.80 with NMDS1 and 0.63 with NMDS2 were found (POVERALL = 0.001, Fig. 2A). Differences between growing areas were also confirmed comparing OTU abundances. For instance, OTUs 93 and 486 were significantly more abundant in the northern growing area, whereas OTUs 65 and 153 were significant more abundant in the central and southern growing areas (Fig. 4A). Conversely, the bacterial communities were not different between the forests and vineyard habitats (PERMANOVA: P = 0.47). This is corroborated by the NMDS plots that show an overlap between bacterial communities from forests and vineyards in each growing area (Fig. 2B–D). We also found significant variation within habitats (PERMANOVA: P = 0.008).

Bottom Line: We found that the bacterial community changed between the sampled growing areas; however, the fungal community did not differ.At the local scale, our findings show that fungal communities differed between habitats because fungi species might be more sensitive to land-use change compared to bacterial species, as bacterial communities did not change between forests and vineyards.Finally, we focus our conclusions on the importance of naturally derived ecosystem services to vineyards.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Facultad de Ciencias Instituto de Ciencias Ambientales y Evolutivas Campus Isla Teja Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia Chile ; Instituto de Ecología & Biodiversidad (IEB-Chile) Casilla 653 Santiago Chile.

ABSTRACT
Natural ecosystems provide services to agriculture such as pest control, soil nutrients, and key microbial components. These services and others in turn provide essential elements that fuel biomass productivity. Responsible agricultural management and conservation of natural habitats can enhance these ecosystem services. Vineyards are currently driving land-use changes in many Mediterranean ecosystems. These land-use changes could have important effects on the supporting ecosystems services related to the soil properties and the microbial communities associated with forests and vineyard soils. Here, we explore soil bacterial and fungal communities present in sclerophyllous forests and organic vineyards from three different wine growing areas in central Chile. We employed terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) to describe the soil microbial communities inhabiting native forests and vineyards in central Chile. We found that the bacterial community changed between the sampled growing areas; however, the fungal community did not differ. At the local scale, our findings show that fungal communities differed between habitats because fungi species might be more sensitive to land-use change compared to bacterial species, as bacterial communities did not change between forests and vineyards. We discuss these findings based on the sensitivity of microbial communities to soil properties and land-use change. Finally, we focus our conclusions on the importance of naturally derived ecosystem services to vineyards.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus