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Comparison of soil microbial communities inhabiting vineyards and native sclerophyllous forests in central Chile.

Castañeda LE, Godoy K, Manzano M, Marquet PA, Barbosa O - Ecol Evol (2015)

Bottom Line: We found that the bacterial community changed between the sampled growing areas; however, the fungal community did not differ.At the local scale, our findings show that fungal communities differed between habitats because fungi species might be more sensitive to land-use change compared to bacterial species, as bacterial communities did not change between forests and vineyards.Finally, we focus our conclusions on the importance of naturally derived ecosystem services to vineyards.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Facultad de Ciencias Instituto de Ciencias Ambientales y Evolutivas Campus Isla Teja Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia Chile ; Instituto de Ecología & Biodiversidad (IEB-Chile) Casilla 653 Santiago Chile.

ABSTRACT
Natural ecosystems provide services to agriculture such as pest control, soil nutrients, and key microbial components. These services and others in turn provide essential elements that fuel biomass productivity. Responsible agricultural management and conservation of natural habitats can enhance these ecosystem services. Vineyards are currently driving land-use changes in many Mediterranean ecosystems. These land-use changes could have important effects on the supporting ecosystems services related to the soil properties and the microbial communities associated with forests and vineyard soils. Here, we explore soil bacterial and fungal communities present in sclerophyllous forests and organic vineyards from three different wine growing areas in central Chile. We employed terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) to describe the soil microbial communities inhabiting native forests and vineyards in central Chile. We found that the bacterial community changed between the sampled growing areas; however, the fungal community did not differ. At the local scale, our findings show that fungal communities differed between habitats because fungi species might be more sensitive to land-use change compared to bacterial species, as bacterial communities did not change between forests and vineyards. We discuss these findings based on the sensitivity of microbial communities to soil properties and land-use change. Finally, we focus our conclusions on the importance of naturally derived ecosystem services to vineyards.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Nonmetric multidimensional scaling plots of soil fungal communities analyzed by T‐RFLP show (A) little geographical structuring of habitat‐pooled fungal communities between northern (full squares: forest; open squares: vineyard), central (full triangles: forest; open triangles: vineyard), and southern (full circles: forest; open circles: vineyard) growing areas, whereas soil fungal communities sampled from sclerophyllous forests (full symbols) and vineyards (open symbols) exhibit no overlap within the northern (B), central (C,) and southern (D) growing areas. The arrows represent the correlation between pH and the community structure.
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ece31652-fig-0003: Nonmetric multidimensional scaling plots of soil fungal communities analyzed by T‐RFLP show (A) little geographical structuring of habitat‐pooled fungal communities between northern (full squares: forest; open squares: vineyard), central (full triangles: forest; open triangles: vineyard), and southern (full circles: forest; open circles: vineyard) growing areas, whereas soil fungal communities sampled from sclerophyllous forests (full symbols) and vineyards (open symbols) exhibit no overlap within the northern (B), central (C,) and southern (D) growing areas. The arrows represent the correlation between pH and the community structure.

Mentions: Using the presence and abundance of fungal OTUs, we calculated richness, diversity (Shannon–Weaver index), and evenness for each of the soil samples collected from the sampled forests and vineyards in central Chile. We did not find significant differences between the growing areas and habitats for the three diversity indices of the fungal communities (Table 3). PERMANOVA tests indicate that the fungal community structure did not differ between growing areas (P = 0.21). This is easily visualized in Figure 3A, where the fungal communities overlap for the three growing areas. Conversely, the PERMANOVA test indicates that the structure of the fungal communities were significantly different between forest and vineyard habitats (P < 0.001) and between plots within habitats (P = 0.0001). The NMDS plots show that the fungal communities inhabiting native forests have minimal overlap with those communities sampled from vineyards (Fig. 3B–D). Soil pH had a strong effect on the differentiation between fungal communities inhabiting in forest and vineyard soils. There was a strong correlation between soil pH and NMDS2 in the northern (r = 0.92, P = 0.001; Fig. 3B) and central growing areas (r = 0.96, P = 0.002; Fig. 3C). In the case of the southern growing area, soil pH was highly correlated with NMDS2 (r = 0.99, P = 0.001; Fig. 3C). This coincided with the direction of the separation between the forest and vineyard communities. Univariate tests for the most common fungal OTUs indicated that OTUs 256, 261, and 353 were significantly more abundant in forest habitats, whereas OTUs 259, 264, and 283 were significantly more abundant in vineyards (Fig. 4B). Also of note is that some fungal OTUs, including the second most dominant OUT 97, exhibit similar abundance in forest and vineyard soils.


Comparison of soil microbial communities inhabiting vineyards and native sclerophyllous forests in central Chile.

Castañeda LE, Godoy K, Manzano M, Marquet PA, Barbosa O - Ecol Evol (2015)

Nonmetric multidimensional scaling plots of soil fungal communities analyzed by T‐RFLP show (A) little geographical structuring of habitat‐pooled fungal communities between northern (full squares: forest; open squares: vineyard), central (full triangles: forest; open triangles: vineyard), and southern (full circles: forest; open circles: vineyard) growing areas, whereas soil fungal communities sampled from sclerophyllous forests (full symbols) and vineyards (open symbols) exhibit no overlap within the northern (B), central (C,) and southern (D) growing areas. The arrows represent the correlation between pH and the community structure.
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588659&req=5

ece31652-fig-0003: Nonmetric multidimensional scaling plots of soil fungal communities analyzed by T‐RFLP show (A) little geographical structuring of habitat‐pooled fungal communities between northern (full squares: forest; open squares: vineyard), central (full triangles: forest; open triangles: vineyard), and southern (full circles: forest; open circles: vineyard) growing areas, whereas soil fungal communities sampled from sclerophyllous forests (full symbols) and vineyards (open symbols) exhibit no overlap within the northern (B), central (C,) and southern (D) growing areas. The arrows represent the correlation between pH and the community structure.
Mentions: Using the presence and abundance of fungal OTUs, we calculated richness, diversity (Shannon–Weaver index), and evenness for each of the soil samples collected from the sampled forests and vineyards in central Chile. We did not find significant differences between the growing areas and habitats for the three diversity indices of the fungal communities (Table 3). PERMANOVA tests indicate that the fungal community structure did not differ between growing areas (P = 0.21). This is easily visualized in Figure 3A, where the fungal communities overlap for the three growing areas. Conversely, the PERMANOVA test indicates that the structure of the fungal communities were significantly different between forest and vineyard habitats (P < 0.001) and between plots within habitats (P = 0.0001). The NMDS plots show that the fungal communities inhabiting native forests have minimal overlap with those communities sampled from vineyards (Fig. 3B–D). Soil pH had a strong effect on the differentiation between fungal communities inhabiting in forest and vineyard soils. There was a strong correlation between soil pH and NMDS2 in the northern (r = 0.92, P = 0.001; Fig. 3B) and central growing areas (r = 0.96, P = 0.002; Fig. 3C). In the case of the southern growing area, soil pH was highly correlated with NMDS2 (r = 0.99, P = 0.001; Fig. 3C). This coincided with the direction of the separation between the forest and vineyard communities. Univariate tests for the most common fungal OTUs indicated that OTUs 256, 261, and 353 were significantly more abundant in forest habitats, whereas OTUs 259, 264, and 283 were significantly more abundant in vineyards (Fig. 4B). Also of note is that some fungal OTUs, including the second most dominant OUT 97, exhibit similar abundance in forest and vineyard soils.

Bottom Line: We found that the bacterial community changed between the sampled growing areas; however, the fungal community did not differ.At the local scale, our findings show that fungal communities differed between habitats because fungi species might be more sensitive to land-use change compared to bacterial species, as bacterial communities did not change between forests and vineyards.Finally, we focus our conclusions on the importance of naturally derived ecosystem services to vineyards.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Facultad de Ciencias Instituto de Ciencias Ambientales y Evolutivas Campus Isla Teja Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia Chile ; Instituto de Ecología & Biodiversidad (IEB-Chile) Casilla 653 Santiago Chile.

ABSTRACT
Natural ecosystems provide services to agriculture such as pest control, soil nutrients, and key microbial components. These services and others in turn provide essential elements that fuel biomass productivity. Responsible agricultural management and conservation of natural habitats can enhance these ecosystem services. Vineyards are currently driving land-use changes in many Mediterranean ecosystems. These land-use changes could have important effects on the supporting ecosystems services related to the soil properties and the microbial communities associated with forests and vineyard soils. Here, we explore soil bacterial and fungal communities present in sclerophyllous forests and organic vineyards from three different wine growing areas in central Chile. We employed terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) to describe the soil microbial communities inhabiting native forests and vineyards in central Chile. We found that the bacterial community changed between the sampled growing areas; however, the fungal community did not differ. At the local scale, our findings show that fungal communities differed between habitats because fungi species might be more sensitive to land-use change compared to bacterial species, as bacterial communities did not change between forests and vineyards. We discuss these findings based on the sensitivity of microbial communities to soil properties and land-use change. Finally, we focus our conclusions on the importance of naturally derived ecosystem services to vineyards.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus