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Comparison of soil microbial communities inhabiting vineyards and native sclerophyllous forests in central Chile.

Castañeda LE, Godoy K, Manzano M, Marquet PA, Barbosa O - Ecol Evol (2015)

Bottom Line: We found that the bacterial community changed between the sampled growing areas; however, the fungal community did not differ.At the local scale, our findings show that fungal communities differed between habitats because fungi species might be more sensitive to land-use change compared to bacterial species, as bacterial communities did not change between forests and vineyards.Finally, we focus our conclusions on the importance of naturally derived ecosystem services to vineyards.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Facultad de Ciencias Instituto de Ciencias Ambientales y Evolutivas Campus Isla Teja Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia Chile ; Instituto de Ecología & Biodiversidad (IEB-Chile) Casilla 653 Santiago Chile.

ABSTRACT
Natural ecosystems provide services to agriculture such as pest control, soil nutrients, and key microbial components. These services and others in turn provide essential elements that fuel biomass productivity. Responsible agricultural management and conservation of natural habitats can enhance these ecosystem services. Vineyards are currently driving land-use changes in many Mediterranean ecosystems. These land-use changes could have important effects on the supporting ecosystems services related to the soil properties and the microbial communities associated with forests and vineyard soils. Here, we explore soil bacterial and fungal communities present in sclerophyllous forests and organic vineyards from three different wine growing areas in central Chile. We employed terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) to describe the soil microbial communities inhabiting native forests and vineyards in central Chile. We found that the bacterial community changed between the sampled growing areas; however, the fungal community did not differ. At the local scale, our findings show that fungal communities differed between habitats because fungi species might be more sensitive to land-use change compared to bacterial species, as bacterial communities did not change between forests and vineyards. We discuss these findings based on the sensitivity of microbial communities to soil properties and land-use change. Finally, we focus our conclusions on the importance of naturally derived ecosystem services to vineyards.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Map of Chile (A) showing vineyards (in purple) and protected areas (in green) and their respective total area in each administrative region (B), which are represented by Roman numerals and ordered from north to south. This plot shows that central Chile is the geographic region with the highest presence of vineyards and, at the same time, the region with few small wild protected areas.
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ece31652-fig-0001: Map of Chile (A) showing vineyards (in purple) and protected areas (in green) and their respective total area in each administrative region (B), which are represented by Roman numerals and ordered from north to south. This plot shows that central Chile is the geographic region with the highest presence of vineyards and, at the same time, the region with few small wild protected areas.

Mentions: Changes in the intensity of land use or land cover as a consequence of agricultural practices have profound effects on the physical and chemical properties of soil (Jangid et al. 2008), which can have negative and irreversible consequences on soil biological communities and their functions (Brussaard et al. 1997; Kennedy et al. 2004; Wardle et al. 2004a; Bardgett 2005; Hartmann and Widmer 2006; Chau et al. 2011). Indeed, the increased tillage and fertilizer use related to farming intensification are associated with an increased role of the bacterial relative to fungal‐based soil metabolism (Hendrix et al. 1986; Wardle et al. 2004a; Bardgett 2005). Thus, intense agricultural practices can lead to faster, leakier soil nutrient cycling and a greater loss of nutrients and carbon in water (Wardle et al. 2004a; van der Heijden et al. 2008). Microbial diversity is essential for agroecosystem functioning, and the conservation of this diversity has economic and ecological relevance (Gardi et al. 2009; Köhl et al. 2014). As such, research on the interaction between soil microbial communities and the wine industry opens very exciting venues considering that soil is an important component of the concept of terroir, which is a very important feature for winemakers (van Leeuwen et al. 2004; Gilbert et al. 2014). In addition, there is scarce information about the role played by microorganisms in the interplay between wine, environment, and ecosystem services. Conversely, there is abundant evidence confirming the important role played by soil microorganisms in erosion control, soil formation, nutrient cycling, and plant health, all of which may be considered important ecosystem services provided by native habitats to the agricultural industry (Stoate et al. 2001; Fernández‐Calviño et al. 2010; García‐Orenes et al. 2013). Consequently, the study of forest microbial communities and their relationship with vineyards is of paramount importance to understand the ecosystem services provided by soil microorganisms. A better understanding of this could allow us to confer an “economic value” to native habitats, thereby quantitatively promoting their conservation. This is of great concern particularly in the Mediterranean region of Chile, which is underrepresented in the Chilean protected area network (Armesto et al. 1998; Marquet et al. 2004; Tognelli et al. 2008). In this region, a large fraction of the area is dedicated to vineyards and, where most of the land that could be protected in the future, is privately owned (Fig. 1).


Comparison of soil microbial communities inhabiting vineyards and native sclerophyllous forests in central Chile.

Castañeda LE, Godoy K, Manzano M, Marquet PA, Barbosa O - Ecol Evol (2015)

Map of Chile (A) showing vineyards (in purple) and protected areas (in green) and their respective total area in each administrative region (B), which are represented by Roman numerals and ordered from north to south. This plot shows that central Chile is the geographic region with the highest presence of vineyards and, at the same time, the region with few small wild protected areas.
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588659&req=5

ece31652-fig-0001: Map of Chile (A) showing vineyards (in purple) and protected areas (in green) and their respective total area in each administrative region (B), which are represented by Roman numerals and ordered from north to south. This plot shows that central Chile is the geographic region with the highest presence of vineyards and, at the same time, the region with few small wild protected areas.
Mentions: Changes in the intensity of land use or land cover as a consequence of agricultural practices have profound effects on the physical and chemical properties of soil (Jangid et al. 2008), which can have negative and irreversible consequences on soil biological communities and their functions (Brussaard et al. 1997; Kennedy et al. 2004; Wardle et al. 2004a; Bardgett 2005; Hartmann and Widmer 2006; Chau et al. 2011). Indeed, the increased tillage and fertilizer use related to farming intensification are associated with an increased role of the bacterial relative to fungal‐based soil metabolism (Hendrix et al. 1986; Wardle et al. 2004a; Bardgett 2005). Thus, intense agricultural practices can lead to faster, leakier soil nutrient cycling and a greater loss of nutrients and carbon in water (Wardle et al. 2004a; van der Heijden et al. 2008). Microbial diversity is essential for agroecosystem functioning, and the conservation of this diversity has economic and ecological relevance (Gardi et al. 2009; Köhl et al. 2014). As such, research on the interaction between soil microbial communities and the wine industry opens very exciting venues considering that soil is an important component of the concept of terroir, which is a very important feature for winemakers (van Leeuwen et al. 2004; Gilbert et al. 2014). In addition, there is scarce information about the role played by microorganisms in the interplay between wine, environment, and ecosystem services. Conversely, there is abundant evidence confirming the important role played by soil microorganisms in erosion control, soil formation, nutrient cycling, and plant health, all of which may be considered important ecosystem services provided by native habitats to the agricultural industry (Stoate et al. 2001; Fernández‐Calviño et al. 2010; García‐Orenes et al. 2013). Consequently, the study of forest microbial communities and their relationship with vineyards is of paramount importance to understand the ecosystem services provided by soil microorganisms. A better understanding of this could allow us to confer an “economic value” to native habitats, thereby quantitatively promoting their conservation. This is of great concern particularly in the Mediterranean region of Chile, which is underrepresented in the Chilean protected area network (Armesto et al. 1998; Marquet et al. 2004; Tognelli et al. 2008). In this region, a large fraction of the area is dedicated to vineyards and, where most of the land that could be protected in the future, is privately owned (Fig. 1).

Bottom Line: We found that the bacterial community changed between the sampled growing areas; however, the fungal community did not differ.At the local scale, our findings show that fungal communities differed between habitats because fungi species might be more sensitive to land-use change compared to bacterial species, as bacterial communities did not change between forests and vineyards.Finally, we focus our conclusions on the importance of naturally derived ecosystem services to vineyards.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Facultad de Ciencias Instituto de Ciencias Ambientales y Evolutivas Campus Isla Teja Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia Chile ; Instituto de Ecología & Biodiversidad (IEB-Chile) Casilla 653 Santiago Chile.

ABSTRACT
Natural ecosystems provide services to agriculture such as pest control, soil nutrients, and key microbial components. These services and others in turn provide essential elements that fuel biomass productivity. Responsible agricultural management and conservation of natural habitats can enhance these ecosystem services. Vineyards are currently driving land-use changes in many Mediterranean ecosystems. These land-use changes could have important effects on the supporting ecosystems services related to the soil properties and the microbial communities associated with forests and vineyard soils. Here, we explore soil bacterial and fungal communities present in sclerophyllous forests and organic vineyards from three different wine growing areas in central Chile. We employed terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) to describe the soil microbial communities inhabiting native forests and vineyards in central Chile. We found that the bacterial community changed between the sampled growing areas; however, the fungal community did not differ. At the local scale, our findings show that fungal communities differed between habitats because fungi species might be more sensitive to land-use change compared to bacterial species, as bacterial communities did not change between forests and vineyards. We discuss these findings based on the sensitivity of microbial communities to soil properties and land-use change. Finally, we focus our conclusions on the importance of naturally derived ecosystem services to vineyards.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus