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Mind the gap: treefalls as drivers of parental trade-offs.

Rojas B - Ecol Evol (2015)

Bottom Line: Other factors associated with the invasion of fresh tree-fall gaps such as animal breeding adaptations have been largely neglected.I found that rearing sites are occupied sooner and tadpoles deposited at higher rates in fresh gaps than in the closed forest, but that the rate of cannibalism is also much greater in the former.These results highlight the importance of studying the earliest stages of invasions in order to have a better understanding of the composition of communities in disturbed ecosystems at later successional stages.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological and Environmental Science Centre of Excellence in Biological Interactions University of Jyvaskyla PO Box 35 Jyväskylä 40014 Finland ; Centre for Integrative Ecology School of Life and Environmental Sciences Deakin University at Waurn Ponds Pigdons Road Geelong Vic. 3217 Australia.

ABSTRACT
Tree-fall gaps are small-scale disturbances whose formation, colonization, and role in forest dynamics are well documented, but whose effects on animal ecology are still greatly overlooked, except for studies comparing species richness of gaps 6+ months old to that in the closed canopy. Other factors associated with the invasion of fresh tree-fall gaps such as animal breeding adaptations have been largely neglected. I studied the immediate (within hours and days) arrival of the poison frog Dendrobates tinctorius in new tree-fall gaps to examine the dynamics of their invasion in relation to tadpole rearing. I found that rearing sites are occupied sooner and tadpoles deposited at higher rates in fresh gaps than in the closed forest, but that the rate of cannibalism is also much greater in the former. This suggests that invading new tree-fall gaps can be the best parental decision when parents arrive early because they get access to fresh, high-quality resources, but it could be to the detriment of the offspring if parents arrive late, because of overcrowding and cannibalism. These results highlight the importance of studying the earliest stages of invasions in order to have a better understanding of the composition of communities in disturbed ecosystems at later successional stages.

No MeSH data available.


A male Dendrobates tinctorius about to deposit its tadpole in a treehole.
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ece31648-fig-0001: A male Dendrobates tinctorius about to deposit its tadpole in a treehole.

Mentions: The dyeing poison frog, Dendrobates tinctorius (Fig. 1), is a diurnal, large (37–53 mm at the study site) (Rojas and Endler 2013) frog of the Neotropical family Dendrobatidae whose distribution is associated with canopy gaps in primary forests in the Eastern Guiana Shield, from sea level up to 600 m (Noonan and Gaucher 2006; Born et al. 2010). Contrary to what has been reported in captivity, where the species has been found to lay clutches of up to 14 eggs (Lötters et al. 2007), pairs in the field lay clutches of 4–5 eggs that are guarded by the male and hatch after approximately 2 weeks (pers. obs.). Tadpoles are then carried by the male, one or two at a time, to phytotelmata (Fig. 1) at variable heights (Rojas 2014) where they remain unattended until metamorphosis, which occurs after 2 or 3 months (pers. obs.). This study was carried out at Camp Pararé, Les Nouragues Reserve, French Guiana (3°59′N, 52°35′W), between 2 February and 2 June 2011, during part of the breeding season of the species.


Mind the gap: treefalls as drivers of parental trade-offs.

Rojas B - Ecol Evol (2015)

A male Dendrobates tinctorius about to deposit its tadpole in a treehole.
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588652&req=5

ece31648-fig-0001: A male Dendrobates tinctorius about to deposit its tadpole in a treehole.
Mentions: The dyeing poison frog, Dendrobates tinctorius (Fig. 1), is a diurnal, large (37–53 mm at the study site) (Rojas and Endler 2013) frog of the Neotropical family Dendrobatidae whose distribution is associated with canopy gaps in primary forests in the Eastern Guiana Shield, from sea level up to 600 m (Noonan and Gaucher 2006; Born et al. 2010). Contrary to what has been reported in captivity, where the species has been found to lay clutches of up to 14 eggs (Lötters et al. 2007), pairs in the field lay clutches of 4–5 eggs that are guarded by the male and hatch after approximately 2 weeks (pers. obs.). Tadpoles are then carried by the male, one or two at a time, to phytotelmata (Fig. 1) at variable heights (Rojas 2014) where they remain unattended until metamorphosis, which occurs after 2 or 3 months (pers. obs.). This study was carried out at Camp Pararé, Les Nouragues Reserve, French Guiana (3°59′N, 52°35′W), between 2 February and 2 June 2011, during part of the breeding season of the species.

Bottom Line: Other factors associated with the invasion of fresh tree-fall gaps such as animal breeding adaptations have been largely neglected.I found that rearing sites are occupied sooner and tadpoles deposited at higher rates in fresh gaps than in the closed forest, but that the rate of cannibalism is also much greater in the former.These results highlight the importance of studying the earliest stages of invasions in order to have a better understanding of the composition of communities in disturbed ecosystems at later successional stages.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological and Environmental Science Centre of Excellence in Biological Interactions University of Jyvaskyla PO Box 35 Jyväskylä 40014 Finland ; Centre for Integrative Ecology School of Life and Environmental Sciences Deakin University at Waurn Ponds Pigdons Road Geelong Vic. 3217 Australia.

ABSTRACT
Tree-fall gaps are small-scale disturbances whose formation, colonization, and role in forest dynamics are well documented, but whose effects on animal ecology are still greatly overlooked, except for studies comparing species richness of gaps 6+ months old to that in the closed canopy. Other factors associated with the invasion of fresh tree-fall gaps such as animal breeding adaptations have been largely neglected. I studied the immediate (within hours and days) arrival of the poison frog Dendrobates tinctorius in new tree-fall gaps to examine the dynamics of their invasion in relation to tadpole rearing. I found that rearing sites are occupied sooner and tadpoles deposited at higher rates in fresh gaps than in the closed forest, but that the rate of cannibalism is also much greater in the former. This suggests that invading new tree-fall gaps can be the best parental decision when parents arrive early because they get access to fresh, high-quality resources, but it could be to the detriment of the offspring if parents arrive late, because of overcrowding and cannibalism. These results highlight the importance of studying the earliest stages of invasions in order to have a better understanding of the composition of communities in disturbed ecosystems at later successional stages.

No MeSH data available.