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Correlation between the green-island phenotype and Wolbachia infections during the evolutionary diversification of Gracillariidae leaf-mining moths.

Gutzwiller F, Dedeine F, Kaiser W, Giron D, Lopez-Vaamonde C - Ecol Evol (2015)

Bottom Line: However, it is currently not known how widespread is this moth-Wolbachia-plant interaction.In addition, Wolbachia variants belonging to both A and B supergroups were found to be associated with green-island phenotype suggesting several independent origins of green-island induction.This study opens new prospects and raises new questions about the ecology and evolution of the tripartite association between Wolbachia, leaf miners, and their host plants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: IRBI UMR 7261 CNRS/Université François-Rabelais de Tours 37200 Tours France.

ABSTRACT
Internally feeding herbivorous insects such as leaf miners have developed the ability to manipulate the physiology of their host plants in a way to best meet their metabolic needs and compensate for variation in food nutritional composition. For instance, some leaf miners can induce green-islands on yellow leaves in autumn, which are characterized by photosynthetically active green patches in otherwise senescing leaves. It has been shown that endosymbionts, and most likely bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, play an important role in green-island induction in the apple leaf-mining moth Phyllonorycter blancardella. However, it is currently not known how widespread is this moth-Wolbachia-plant interaction. Here, we studied the co-occurrence between Wolbachia and the green-island phenotype in 133 moth specimens belonging to 74 species of Lepidoptera including 60 Gracillariidae leaf miners. Using a combination of molecular phylogenies and ecological data (occurrence of green-islands), we show that the acquisitions of the green-island phenotype and Wolbachia infections have been associated through the evolutionary diversification of Gracillariidae. We also found intraspecific variability in both green-island formation and Wolbachia infection, with some species being able to form green-islands without being infected by Wolbachia. In addition, Wolbachia variants belonging to both A and B supergroups were found to be associated with green-island phenotype suggesting several independent origins of green-island induction. This study opens new prospects and raises new questions about the ecology and evolution of the tripartite association between Wolbachia, leaf miners, and their host plants.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Bayesian phylogeny of Wolbachia based on 16S where the two groups A and B correspond, respectively, to red and blue. Pp supporting values over 70% are displayed above branches. Terminal taxa are named with either the DNA extract code of their Lepidoptera hosts (Table S1) or with accession numbers for sequences imported from GenBank.
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ece31580-fig-0004: Bayesian phylogeny of Wolbachia based on 16S where the two groups A and B correspond, respectively, to red and blue. Pp supporting values over 70% are displayed above branches. Terminal taxa are named with either the DNA extract code of their Lepidoptera hosts (Table S1) or with accession numbers for sequences imported from GenBank.

Mentions: From 36 of the 39 amplified 16S, we obtained the sequences of the region 16S (Fig. 4). We aligned them with 8 other Wolbachia sequences from GenBank for which the supergroup was known and one sequence from Rickettsia. Phylogenetic trees reconstructed using both Bayesian and maximum‐likelihood inferences were congruent and revealed that our sequences clustered into two main groups (Fig. 4; Table S2, Supporting information). According to the imported sequences, the two lineages most likely correspond to the two most common Wolbachia supergroups infecting arthropods, named A and B (Fig. 4; Table S2, Supporting information). In addition, we obtained the wsp sequence from 24 infected individuals that we aligned with wsp sequences belonging to Wolbachia A and B supergroups (Baldo et al. 2006). The Bayesian tree (Fig. 5) shows that samples infected with Wolbachia A form a well‐supported monophyletic group. Wolbachia that most probably belong to the supergroup B based on their 16S sequences formed two main lineages (named B1 and B2) in the Bayesian wsp phylogenetic tree (Fig. 5; Table S2, Supporting information). ML analyses showed the same result for both 16S and wsp genes (data not shown).


Correlation between the green-island phenotype and Wolbachia infections during the evolutionary diversification of Gracillariidae leaf-mining moths.

Gutzwiller F, Dedeine F, Kaiser W, Giron D, Lopez-Vaamonde C - Ecol Evol (2015)

Bayesian phylogeny of Wolbachia based on 16S where the two groups A and B correspond, respectively, to red and blue. Pp supporting values over 70% are displayed above branches. Terminal taxa are named with either the DNA extract code of their Lepidoptera hosts (Table S1) or with accession numbers for sequences imported from GenBank.
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588643&req=5

ece31580-fig-0004: Bayesian phylogeny of Wolbachia based on 16S where the two groups A and B correspond, respectively, to red and blue. Pp supporting values over 70% are displayed above branches. Terminal taxa are named with either the DNA extract code of their Lepidoptera hosts (Table S1) or with accession numbers for sequences imported from GenBank.
Mentions: From 36 of the 39 amplified 16S, we obtained the sequences of the region 16S (Fig. 4). We aligned them with 8 other Wolbachia sequences from GenBank for which the supergroup was known and one sequence from Rickettsia. Phylogenetic trees reconstructed using both Bayesian and maximum‐likelihood inferences were congruent and revealed that our sequences clustered into two main groups (Fig. 4; Table S2, Supporting information). According to the imported sequences, the two lineages most likely correspond to the two most common Wolbachia supergroups infecting arthropods, named A and B (Fig. 4; Table S2, Supporting information). In addition, we obtained the wsp sequence from 24 infected individuals that we aligned with wsp sequences belonging to Wolbachia A and B supergroups (Baldo et al. 2006). The Bayesian tree (Fig. 5) shows that samples infected with Wolbachia A form a well‐supported monophyletic group. Wolbachia that most probably belong to the supergroup B based on their 16S sequences formed two main lineages (named B1 and B2) in the Bayesian wsp phylogenetic tree (Fig. 5; Table S2, Supporting information). ML analyses showed the same result for both 16S and wsp genes (data not shown).

Bottom Line: However, it is currently not known how widespread is this moth-Wolbachia-plant interaction.In addition, Wolbachia variants belonging to both A and B supergroups were found to be associated with green-island phenotype suggesting several independent origins of green-island induction.This study opens new prospects and raises new questions about the ecology and evolution of the tripartite association between Wolbachia, leaf miners, and their host plants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: IRBI UMR 7261 CNRS/Université François-Rabelais de Tours 37200 Tours France.

ABSTRACT
Internally feeding herbivorous insects such as leaf miners have developed the ability to manipulate the physiology of their host plants in a way to best meet their metabolic needs and compensate for variation in food nutritional composition. For instance, some leaf miners can induce green-islands on yellow leaves in autumn, which are characterized by photosynthetically active green patches in otherwise senescing leaves. It has been shown that endosymbionts, and most likely bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, play an important role in green-island induction in the apple leaf-mining moth Phyllonorycter blancardella. However, it is currently not known how widespread is this moth-Wolbachia-plant interaction. Here, we studied the co-occurrence between Wolbachia and the green-island phenotype in 133 moth specimens belonging to 74 species of Lepidoptera including 60 Gracillariidae leaf miners. Using a combination of molecular phylogenies and ecological data (occurrence of green-islands), we show that the acquisitions of the green-island phenotype and Wolbachia infections have been associated through the evolutionary diversification of Gracillariidae. We also found intraspecific variability in both green-island formation and Wolbachia infection, with some species being able to form green-islands without being infected by Wolbachia. In addition, Wolbachia variants belonging to both A and B supergroups were found to be associated with green-island phenotype suggesting several independent origins of green-island induction. This study opens new prospects and raises new questions about the ecology and evolution of the tripartite association between Wolbachia, leaf miners, and their host plants.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus