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Correlation between the green-island phenotype and Wolbachia infections during the evolutionary diversification of Gracillariidae leaf-mining moths.

Gutzwiller F, Dedeine F, Kaiser W, Giron D, Lopez-Vaamonde C - Ecol Evol (2015)

Bottom Line: However, it is currently not known how widespread is this moth-Wolbachia-plant interaction.In addition, Wolbachia variants belonging to both A and B supergroups were found to be associated with green-island phenotype suggesting several independent origins of green-island induction.This study opens new prospects and raises new questions about the ecology and evolution of the tripartite association between Wolbachia, leaf miners, and their host plants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: IRBI UMR 7261 CNRS/Université François-Rabelais de Tours 37200 Tours France.

ABSTRACT
Internally feeding herbivorous insects such as leaf miners have developed the ability to manipulate the physiology of their host plants in a way to best meet their metabolic needs and compensate for variation in food nutritional composition. For instance, some leaf miners can induce green-islands on yellow leaves in autumn, which are characterized by photosynthetically active green patches in otherwise senescing leaves. It has been shown that endosymbionts, and most likely bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, play an important role in green-island induction in the apple leaf-mining moth Phyllonorycter blancardella. However, it is currently not known how widespread is this moth-Wolbachia-plant interaction. Here, we studied the co-occurrence between Wolbachia and the green-island phenotype in 133 moth specimens belonging to 74 species of Lepidoptera including 60 Gracillariidae leaf miners. Using a combination of molecular phylogenies and ecological data (occurrence of green-islands), we show that the acquisitions of the green-island phenotype and Wolbachia infections have been associated through the evolutionary diversification of Gracillariidae. We also found intraspecific variability in both green-island formation and Wolbachia infection, with some species being able to form green-islands without being infected by Wolbachia. In addition, Wolbachia variants belonging to both A and B supergroups were found to be associated with green-island phenotype suggesting several independent origins of green-island induction. This study opens new prospects and raises new questions about the ecology and evolution of the tripartite association between Wolbachia, leaf miners, and their host plants.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

ML reconstruction of the green‐island ancestral state on the leaf miner's phylogeny. Red color shows the absence of green‐island, green color the presence of green‐island, and blue color when green‐island presence or absence was unknown.
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ece31580-fig-0002: ML reconstruction of the green‐island ancestral state on the leaf miner's phylogeny. Red color shows the absence of green‐island, green color the presence of green‐island, and blue color when green‐island presence or absence was unknown.

Mentions: Of the 107 samples for which mines were observed on yellow leaves, 30 specimens (28%) showed green‐islands. Among these 30 moths, 28 belonged to the Gracillariidae family. (Fig. 1; Table S1, Supporting information). The ML reconstruction suggests that ancestral Gracillariidae did not form green‐islands (Fig. 2) and were not infected with Wolbachia (Fig. 3). Of the 23 species for which the presence/absence of green‐islands was scored in more than one specimen, three species (P. pyrifoliella, P. joannisi, and P. comparella) showed between‐individuals variability for green‐island formation (i.e., some individuals produced green‐islands and others did not).


Correlation between the green-island phenotype and Wolbachia infections during the evolutionary diversification of Gracillariidae leaf-mining moths.

Gutzwiller F, Dedeine F, Kaiser W, Giron D, Lopez-Vaamonde C - Ecol Evol (2015)

ML reconstruction of the green‐island ancestral state on the leaf miner's phylogeny. Red color shows the absence of green‐island, green color the presence of green‐island, and blue color when green‐island presence or absence was unknown.
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588643&req=5

ece31580-fig-0002: ML reconstruction of the green‐island ancestral state on the leaf miner's phylogeny. Red color shows the absence of green‐island, green color the presence of green‐island, and blue color when green‐island presence or absence was unknown.
Mentions: Of the 107 samples for which mines were observed on yellow leaves, 30 specimens (28%) showed green‐islands. Among these 30 moths, 28 belonged to the Gracillariidae family. (Fig. 1; Table S1, Supporting information). The ML reconstruction suggests that ancestral Gracillariidae did not form green‐islands (Fig. 2) and were not infected with Wolbachia (Fig. 3). Of the 23 species for which the presence/absence of green‐islands was scored in more than one specimen, three species (P. pyrifoliella, P. joannisi, and P. comparella) showed between‐individuals variability for green‐island formation (i.e., some individuals produced green‐islands and others did not).

Bottom Line: However, it is currently not known how widespread is this moth-Wolbachia-plant interaction.In addition, Wolbachia variants belonging to both A and B supergroups were found to be associated with green-island phenotype suggesting several independent origins of green-island induction.This study opens new prospects and raises new questions about the ecology and evolution of the tripartite association between Wolbachia, leaf miners, and their host plants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: IRBI UMR 7261 CNRS/Université François-Rabelais de Tours 37200 Tours France.

ABSTRACT
Internally feeding herbivorous insects such as leaf miners have developed the ability to manipulate the physiology of their host plants in a way to best meet their metabolic needs and compensate for variation in food nutritional composition. For instance, some leaf miners can induce green-islands on yellow leaves in autumn, which are characterized by photosynthetically active green patches in otherwise senescing leaves. It has been shown that endosymbionts, and most likely bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, play an important role in green-island induction in the apple leaf-mining moth Phyllonorycter blancardella. However, it is currently not known how widespread is this moth-Wolbachia-plant interaction. Here, we studied the co-occurrence between Wolbachia and the green-island phenotype in 133 moth specimens belonging to 74 species of Lepidoptera including 60 Gracillariidae leaf miners. Using a combination of molecular phylogenies and ecological data (occurrence of green-islands), we show that the acquisitions of the green-island phenotype and Wolbachia infections have been associated through the evolutionary diversification of Gracillariidae. We also found intraspecific variability in both green-island formation and Wolbachia infection, with some species being able to form green-islands without being infected by Wolbachia. In addition, Wolbachia variants belonging to both A and B supergroups were found to be associated with green-island phenotype suggesting several independent origins of green-island induction. This study opens new prospects and raises new questions about the ecology and evolution of the tripartite association between Wolbachia, leaf miners, and their host plants.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus