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Correlation between the green-island phenotype and Wolbachia infections during the evolutionary diversification of Gracillariidae leaf-mining moths.

Gutzwiller F, Dedeine F, Kaiser W, Giron D, Lopez-Vaamonde C - Ecol Evol (2015)

Bottom Line: However, it is currently not known how widespread is this moth-Wolbachia-plant interaction.In addition, Wolbachia variants belonging to both A and B supergroups were found to be associated with green-island phenotype suggesting several independent origins of green-island induction.This study opens new prospects and raises new questions about the ecology and evolution of the tripartite association between Wolbachia, leaf miners, and their host plants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: IRBI UMR 7261 CNRS/Université François-Rabelais de Tours 37200 Tours France.

ABSTRACT
Internally feeding herbivorous insects such as leaf miners have developed the ability to manipulate the physiology of their host plants in a way to best meet their metabolic needs and compensate for variation in food nutritional composition. For instance, some leaf miners can induce green-islands on yellow leaves in autumn, which are characterized by photosynthetically active green patches in otherwise senescing leaves. It has been shown that endosymbionts, and most likely bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, play an important role in green-island induction in the apple leaf-mining moth Phyllonorycter blancardella. However, it is currently not known how widespread is this moth-Wolbachia-plant interaction. Here, we studied the co-occurrence between Wolbachia and the green-island phenotype in 133 moth specimens belonging to 74 species of Lepidoptera including 60 Gracillariidae leaf miners. Using a combination of molecular phylogenies and ecological data (occurrence of green-islands), we show that the acquisitions of the green-island phenotype and Wolbachia infections have been associated through the evolutionary diversification of Gracillariidae. We also found intraspecific variability in both green-island formation and Wolbachia infection, with some species being able to form green-islands without being infected by Wolbachia. In addition, Wolbachia variants belonging to both A and B supergroups were found to be associated with green-island phenotype suggesting several independent origins of green-island induction. This study opens new prospects and raises new questions about the ecology and evolution of the tripartite association between Wolbachia, leaf miners, and their host plants.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Bayesian phylogeny of studied Lepidoptera and distribution of green‐island formation and Wolbachia infection based on COI, H3, Wg, and EF1‐α genes. The PP support values above 0.6 are shown above branches. Colored branches indicate species belonging to the family Gracillariidae (red = Phyllonorycter species). For all the color strips, light gray indicates the absence of the character and a color its presence. White indicates the absence of data. The two first rows (starting from inside) of color strips represent Wolbachia groups according, respectively, to wsp and 16S. The red represent the A group and blue the B group; dark gray is for the infected strain for which the group is unknown. The two tones of blue in the wsp band represent two subgroups of the B group. The last band shows the green‐island presence. Each taxa name is the species name followed by the sample name.
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ece31580-fig-0001: Bayesian phylogeny of studied Lepidoptera and distribution of green‐island formation and Wolbachia infection based on COI, H3, Wg, and EF1‐α genes. The PP support values above 0.6 are shown above branches. Colored branches indicate species belonging to the family Gracillariidae (red = Phyllonorycter species). For all the color strips, light gray indicates the absence of the character and a color its presence. White indicates the absence of data. The two first rows (starting from inside) of color strips represent Wolbachia groups according, respectively, to wsp and 16S. The red represent the A group and blue the B group; dark gray is for the infected strain for which the group is unknown. The two tones of blue in the wsp band represent two subgroups of the B group. The last band shows the green‐island presence. Each taxa name is the species name followed by the sample name.

Mentions: The Bayesian tree (Fig. 1) revealed well‐supported relationships between genera and species within subfamilies Gracillariidae and Lithocolletinae. Conspecific individuals collected from different locations and/or hosts also form strongly supported monophyletic clades. Lithocolletinae forms a monophyletic group (Pp = 1.00) with Cameraria as sister taxa to Phyllonorycter (Pp = 0.91).


Correlation between the green-island phenotype and Wolbachia infections during the evolutionary diversification of Gracillariidae leaf-mining moths.

Gutzwiller F, Dedeine F, Kaiser W, Giron D, Lopez-Vaamonde C - Ecol Evol (2015)

Bayesian phylogeny of studied Lepidoptera and distribution of green‐island formation and Wolbachia infection based on COI, H3, Wg, and EF1‐α genes. The PP support values above 0.6 are shown above branches. Colored branches indicate species belonging to the family Gracillariidae (red = Phyllonorycter species). For all the color strips, light gray indicates the absence of the character and a color its presence. White indicates the absence of data. The two first rows (starting from inside) of color strips represent Wolbachia groups according, respectively, to wsp and 16S. The red represent the A group and blue the B group; dark gray is for the infected strain for which the group is unknown. The two tones of blue in the wsp band represent two subgroups of the B group. The last band shows the green‐island presence. Each taxa name is the species name followed by the sample name.
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588643&req=5

ece31580-fig-0001: Bayesian phylogeny of studied Lepidoptera and distribution of green‐island formation and Wolbachia infection based on COI, H3, Wg, and EF1‐α genes. The PP support values above 0.6 are shown above branches. Colored branches indicate species belonging to the family Gracillariidae (red = Phyllonorycter species). For all the color strips, light gray indicates the absence of the character and a color its presence. White indicates the absence of data. The two first rows (starting from inside) of color strips represent Wolbachia groups according, respectively, to wsp and 16S. The red represent the A group and blue the B group; dark gray is for the infected strain for which the group is unknown. The two tones of blue in the wsp band represent two subgroups of the B group. The last band shows the green‐island presence. Each taxa name is the species name followed by the sample name.
Mentions: The Bayesian tree (Fig. 1) revealed well‐supported relationships between genera and species within subfamilies Gracillariidae and Lithocolletinae. Conspecific individuals collected from different locations and/or hosts also form strongly supported monophyletic clades. Lithocolletinae forms a monophyletic group (Pp = 1.00) with Cameraria as sister taxa to Phyllonorycter (Pp = 0.91).

Bottom Line: However, it is currently not known how widespread is this moth-Wolbachia-plant interaction.In addition, Wolbachia variants belonging to both A and B supergroups were found to be associated with green-island phenotype suggesting several independent origins of green-island induction.This study opens new prospects and raises new questions about the ecology and evolution of the tripartite association between Wolbachia, leaf miners, and their host plants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: IRBI UMR 7261 CNRS/Université François-Rabelais de Tours 37200 Tours France.

ABSTRACT
Internally feeding herbivorous insects such as leaf miners have developed the ability to manipulate the physiology of their host plants in a way to best meet their metabolic needs and compensate for variation in food nutritional composition. For instance, some leaf miners can induce green-islands on yellow leaves in autumn, which are characterized by photosynthetically active green patches in otherwise senescing leaves. It has been shown that endosymbionts, and most likely bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, play an important role in green-island induction in the apple leaf-mining moth Phyllonorycter blancardella. However, it is currently not known how widespread is this moth-Wolbachia-plant interaction. Here, we studied the co-occurrence between Wolbachia and the green-island phenotype in 133 moth specimens belonging to 74 species of Lepidoptera including 60 Gracillariidae leaf miners. Using a combination of molecular phylogenies and ecological data (occurrence of green-islands), we show that the acquisitions of the green-island phenotype and Wolbachia infections have been associated through the evolutionary diversification of Gracillariidae. We also found intraspecific variability in both green-island formation and Wolbachia infection, with some species being able to form green-islands without being infected by Wolbachia. In addition, Wolbachia variants belonging to both A and B supergroups were found to be associated with green-island phenotype suggesting several independent origins of green-island induction. This study opens new prospects and raises new questions about the ecology and evolution of the tripartite association between Wolbachia, leaf miners, and their host plants.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus