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Multiple introductions from multiple sources: invasion patterns for an important Eucalyptus leaf pathogen.

Taole M, Bihon W, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ, Burgess TI - Ecol Evol (2015)

Bottom Line: The diversity of the invasive populations varied widely, but in general, the younger the plantation industry in a country or region, the lower the diversity of T. suttonii.Historical gene flow was from Australia, and while self-recruitment was dominant in all populations, there was evidence for contemporary gene flow, with South Africa being the most common source and Uruguay the most common sink population.This points distinctly to human activities underlying long-distance spread of this pathogen, and it highlights lessons to be learned regarding quarantine.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology National University of Lesotho P. O. 180 Roma Lesotho ; Department of Genetics Forestry and Agriculture Biotechnology Institute (FABI) University of Pretoria Pretoria 0002 South Africa.

ABSTRACT
Many population studies on invasive plant pathogens are undertaken without knowing the center of origin of the pathogen. Most leaf pathogens of Eucalyptus originate in Australia and consequently with indigenous populations available, and it is possible to study the pathways of invasion. Teratosphaeria suttonii is a commonly occurring leaf pathogen of Eucalyptus species, naturally distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of eastern Australia where it is regarded as a minor pathogen infecting older leaves; however, repeated infections, especially in exotic plantations, can result in severe defoliation and tree deaths. Nine polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to assess the genetic structure of 11 populations of T. suttonii of which four where from within its native range in eastern Australia and the remaining seven from exotic Eucalyptus plantations. Indigenous populations exhibited high allele and haplotype diversity, predominantly clonal reproduction, high population differentiation, and low gene flow. The diversity of the invasive populations varied widely, but in general, the younger the plantation industry in a country or region, the lower the diversity of T. suttonii. Historical gene flow was from Australia, and while self-recruitment was dominant in all populations, there was evidence for contemporary gene flow, with South Africa being the most common source and Uruguay the most common sink population. This points distinctly to human activities underlying long-distance spread of this pathogen, and it highlights lessons to be learned regarding quarantine.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A network showing relationships between the global populations of Teratosphaeria suttonii. Each circle represents cluster of related haplotypes, the size of the circle corresponds to the number of MLHs in each cluster; the colors correspond to geographic regions as given in the legend. The numbers on the branches represent the number of mutations.
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ece31693-fig-0002: A network showing relationships between the global populations of Teratosphaeria suttonii. Each circle represents cluster of related haplotypes, the size of the circle corresponds to the number of MLHs in each cluster; the colors correspond to geographic regions as given in the legend. The numbers on the branches represent the number of mutations.

Mentions: Within Australia, haplotypes were for the most part clustered with geographic location (Fig. 2). The haplotypes from the introduced population in WA were found in the network linked with isolates from C‐QLD. MLHs from the NSW populations were scattered throughout the network (Fig. S3). The network of global population MLHs clearly depicted the representation and domination of Australian MLHs throughout. MLHs from CHN and IDN fell in the center of the network linked to Australian MLHs on both sides. MLHs from USA and VTN fell at the end of branches. MLHs from URY clustered in the network with some MLHs from ZAF.


Multiple introductions from multiple sources: invasion patterns for an important Eucalyptus leaf pathogen.

Taole M, Bihon W, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ, Burgess TI - Ecol Evol (2015)

A network showing relationships between the global populations of Teratosphaeria suttonii. Each circle represents cluster of related haplotypes, the size of the circle corresponds to the number of MLHs in each cluster; the colors correspond to geographic regions as given in the legend. The numbers on the branches represent the number of mutations.
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588637&req=5

ece31693-fig-0002: A network showing relationships between the global populations of Teratosphaeria suttonii. Each circle represents cluster of related haplotypes, the size of the circle corresponds to the number of MLHs in each cluster; the colors correspond to geographic regions as given in the legend. The numbers on the branches represent the number of mutations.
Mentions: Within Australia, haplotypes were for the most part clustered with geographic location (Fig. 2). The haplotypes from the introduced population in WA were found in the network linked with isolates from C‐QLD. MLHs from the NSW populations were scattered throughout the network (Fig. S3). The network of global population MLHs clearly depicted the representation and domination of Australian MLHs throughout. MLHs from CHN and IDN fell in the center of the network linked to Australian MLHs on both sides. MLHs from USA and VTN fell at the end of branches. MLHs from URY clustered in the network with some MLHs from ZAF.

Bottom Line: The diversity of the invasive populations varied widely, but in general, the younger the plantation industry in a country or region, the lower the diversity of T. suttonii.Historical gene flow was from Australia, and while self-recruitment was dominant in all populations, there was evidence for contemporary gene flow, with South Africa being the most common source and Uruguay the most common sink population.This points distinctly to human activities underlying long-distance spread of this pathogen, and it highlights lessons to be learned regarding quarantine.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology National University of Lesotho P. O. 180 Roma Lesotho ; Department of Genetics Forestry and Agriculture Biotechnology Institute (FABI) University of Pretoria Pretoria 0002 South Africa.

ABSTRACT
Many population studies on invasive plant pathogens are undertaken without knowing the center of origin of the pathogen. Most leaf pathogens of Eucalyptus originate in Australia and consequently with indigenous populations available, and it is possible to study the pathways of invasion. Teratosphaeria suttonii is a commonly occurring leaf pathogen of Eucalyptus species, naturally distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of eastern Australia where it is regarded as a minor pathogen infecting older leaves; however, repeated infections, especially in exotic plantations, can result in severe defoliation and tree deaths. Nine polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to assess the genetic structure of 11 populations of T. suttonii of which four where from within its native range in eastern Australia and the remaining seven from exotic Eucalyptus plantations. Indigenous populations exhibited high allele and haplotype diversity, predominantly clonal reproduction, high population differentiation, and low gene flow. The diversity of the invasive populations varied widely, but in general, the younger the plantation industry in a country or region, the lower the diversity of T. suttonii. Historical gene flow was from Australia, and while self-recruitment was dominant in all populations, there was evidence for contemporary gene flow, with South Africa being the most common source and Uruguay the most common sink population. This points distinctly to human activities underlying long-distance spread of this pathogen, and it highlights lessons to be learned regarding quarantine.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus