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Metabolic changes upon flower bud break in Japanese apricot are enhanced by exogenous GA4.

Zhuang W, Gao Z, Wen L, Huo X, Cai B, Zhang Z - Hortic Res (2015)

Bottom Line: Gibberellin (GA4) has a significant effect on promoting dormancy release in flower buds of Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc).These results suggested that energy metabolism is important at the metabolic level in dormancy release following GA4 treatment.We also found that more than 10-fold differences in abundance were observed for many metabolites, including sucrose, proline, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid, which might play important roles during the dormancy process.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University , Nanjing 210095, China.

ABSTRACT
Gibberellin (GA4) has a significant effect on promoting dormancy release in flower buds of Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc). The transcriptomic and proteomic changes that occur after GA4 treatment have been reported previously; however, the metabolic changes brought about by GA4 remain unknown. The present study was undertaken to assess changes in metabolites in response to GA4 treatment, as determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and principal component analysis. Fifty-five metabolites that exhibited more than two-fold differences in abundance (P < 0.05) between samples collected over time after a given treatment or between samples exposed to different treatments were studied further. These metabolites were categorized into six main groups: amino acids and their isoforms (10), amino acid derivatives (7), sugars and polyols (14), organic acids (12), fatty acids (4), and others (8). All of these groups are involved in various metabolic pathways, in particular galactose metabolism, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, and starch and sucrose metabolism. These results suggested that energy metabolism is important at the metabolic level in dormancy release following GA4 treatment. We also found that more than 10-fold differences in abundance were observed for many metabolites, including sucrose, proline, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid, which might play important roles during the dormancy process. The current research extends our understanding of the mechanisms involved in budburst and dormancy release in response to GA4 and provides a theoretical basis for applying GA4 to release dormancy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The relative expression levels of four genes, as determined by quantitative RT-PCR at 0, 5, and 10 days of GA4 treatment or water treatment, in flower buds of Japanese apricot. The expression levels were normalized to RNA polymerase subunit expression. Bars indicate the mean ± SD, n = 3.
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fig4: The relative expression levels of four genes, as determined by quantitative RT-PCR at 0, 5, and 10 days of GA4 treatment or water treatment, in flower buds of Japanese apricot. The expression levels were normalized to RNA polymerase subunit expression. Bars indicate the mean ± SD, n = 3.

Mentions: In our study, the abundances of some of the 55 metabolites that showed a more than two-fold increase/decrease after treatment changed more than 10-fold after GA4 treatment; these metabolites included sucrose, proline, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid, which might play roles in the dormancy process. After 5 days of GA4 treatment, the sucrose content had increased 13.86-fold over the level at 0 days of water treatment, whereas after 5 days of water treatment, the sucrose content showed only a 1.77-fold increase compared to the sucrose level at 0 days of water treatment. After 10 days of GA4 treatment, the sucrose levels had decreased 7.50-fold compared with 5 days of GA4 treatment. In contrast, after 10 days of water treatment, the sucrose content had increased 17.01-fold compared with 5 days of water treatment (Table 1 and Supplementary Table S2). We also studied the trends in the expression of three genes associated with sucrose metabolism (INVERTASE, SUCROSE-6-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (SPS), and SUCROSE SYNTHASE (SS)). SPS, a gene associated with sucrose synthesis, was significantly up-regulated after 5 days of GA4 treatment, while this gene was slightly down-regulated after 5 days of water treatment. After 10 daysof GA4 treatment, SPS was down-regulated compared with after 5 days of GA4 treatment, while after 10 days of water treatment, SPS was up-regulated compared with after 5 days of water treatment. INVERTASE and SS, two genes responsible for sucrose breakdown, showed similar trends during the water treatment and GA4 treatment. INVERTASE and SS were significantly down-regulated after 5 days of GA4 treatment, while these genes were only slightly down-regulated after 5 days of water treatment. After 10 days of GA4 treatment, SPS was up-regulated compared with after 5 days of GA4 treatment, while after 10 days of water treatment, SPS continued to down-regulated compared with that after 5 days of water treatment. The trends in the expression of these three genes were consistent with the changes in sucrose content (Figure 4). The proline concentration showed a change similar to that of sucrose after GA4 or water treatment, and the proline content was higher after GA4 treatment than after water treatment (Table 1 and Supplementary Table S2).


Metabolic changes upon flower bud break in Japanese apricot are enhanced by exogenous GA4.

Zhuang W, Gao Z, Wen L, Huo X, Cai B, Zhang Z - Hortic Res (2015)

The relative expression levels of four genes, as determined by quantitative RT-PCR at 0, 5, and 10 days of GA4 treatment or water treatment, in flower buds of Japanese apricot. The expression levels were normalized to RNA polymerase subunit expression. Bars indicate the mean ± SD, n = 3.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588617&req=5

fig4: The relative expression levels of four genes, as determined by quantitative RT-PCR at 0, 5, and 10 days of GA4 treatment or water treatment, in flower buds of Japanese apricot. The expression levels were normalized to RNA polymerase subunit expression. Bars indicate the mean ± SD, n = 3.
Mentions: In our study, the abundances of some of the 55 metabolites that showed a more than two-fold increase/decrease after treatment changed more than 10-fold after GA4 treatment; these metabolites included sucrose, proline, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid, which might play roles in the dormancy process. After 5 days of GA4 treatment, the sucrose content had increased 13.86-fold over the level at 0 days of water treatment, whereas after 5 days of water treatment, the sucrose content showed only a 1.77-fold increase compared to the sucrose level at 0 days of water treatment. After 10 days of GA4 treatment, the sucrose levels had decreased 7.50-fold compared with 5 days of GA4 treatment. In contrast, after 10 days of water treatment, the sucrose content had increased 17.01-fold compared with 5 days of water treatment (Table 1 and Supplementary Table S2). We also studied the trends in the expression of three genes associated with sucrose metabolism (INVERTASE, SUCROSE-6-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (SPS), and SUCROSE SYNTHASE (SS)). SPS, a gene associated with sucrose synthesis, was significantly up-regulated after 5 days of GA4 treatment, while this gene was slightly down-regulated after 5 days of water treatment. After 10 daysof GA4 treatment, SPS was down-regulated compared with after 5 days of GA4 treatment, while after 10 days of water treatment, SPS was up-regulated compared with after 5 days of water treatment. INVERTASE and SS, two genes responsible for sucrose breakdown, showed similar trends during the water treatment and GA4 treatment. INVERTASE and SS were significantly down-regulated after 5 days of GA4 treatment, while these genes were only slightly down-regulated after 5 days of water treatment. After 10 days of GA4 treatment, SPS was up-regulated compared with after 5 days of GA4 treatment, while after 10 days of water treatment, SPS continued to down-regulated compared with that after 5 days of water treatment. The trends in the expression of these three genes were consistent with the changes in sucrose content (Figure 4). The proline concentration showed a change similar to that of sucrose after GA4 or water treatment, and the proline content was higher after GA4 treatment than after water treatment (Table 1 and Supplementary Table S2).

Bottom Line: Gibberellin (GA4) has a significant effect on promoting dormancy release in flower buds of Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc).These results suggested that energy metabolism is important at the metabolic level in dormancy release following GA4 treatment.We also found that more than 10-fold differences in abundance were observed for many metabolites, including sucrose, proline, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid, which might play important roles during the dormancy process.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University , Nanjing 210095, China.

ABSTRACT
Gibberellin (GA4) has a significant effect on promoting dormancy release in flower buds of Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc). The transcriptomic and proteomic changes that occur after GA4 treatment have been reported previously; however, the metabolic changes brought about by GA4 remain unknown. The present study was undertaken to assess changes in metabolites in response to GA4 treatment, as determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and principal component analysis. Fifty-five metabolites that exhibited more than two-fold differences in abundance (P < 0.05) between samples collected over time after a given treatment or between samples exposed to different treatments were studied further. These metabolites were categorized into six main groups: amino acids and their isoforms (10), amino acid derivatives (7), sugars and polyols (14), organic acids (12), fatty acids (4), and others (8). All of these groups are involved in various metabolic pathways, in particular galactose metabolism, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, and starch and sucrose metabolism. These results suggested that energy metabolism is important at the metabolic level in dormancy release following GA4 treatment. We also found that more than 10-fold differences in abundance were observed for many metabolites, including sucrose, proline, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid, which might play important roles during the dormancy process. The current research extends our understanding of the mechanisms involved in budburst and dormancy release in response to GA4 and provides a theoretical basis for applying GA4 to release dormancy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus