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Metabolic changes upon flower bud break in Japanese apricot are enhanced by exogenous GA4.

Zhuang W, Gao Z, Wen L, Huo X, Cai B, Zhang Z - Hortic Res (2015)

Bottom Line: Gibberellin (GA4) has a significant effect on promoting dormancy release in flower buds of Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc).These results suggested that energy metabolism is important at the metabolic level in dormancy release following GA4 treatment.We also found that more than 10-fold differences in abundance were observed for many metabolites, including sucrose, proline, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid, which might play important roles during the dormancy process.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University , Nanjing 210095, China.

ABSTRACT
Gibberellin (GA4) has a significant effect on promoting dormancy release in flower buds of Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc). The transcriptomic and proteomic changes that occur after GA4 treatment have been reported previously; however, the metabolic changes brought about by GA4 remain unknown. The present study was undertaken to assess changes in metabolites in response to GA4 treatment, as determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and principal component analysis. Fifty-five metabolites that exhibited more than two-fold differences in abundance (P < 0.05) between samples collected over time after a given treatment or between samples exposed to different treatments were studied further. These metabolites were categorized into six main groups: amino acids and their isoforms (10), amino acid derivatives (7), sugars and polyols (14), organic acids (12), fatty acids (4), and others (8). All of these groups are involved in various metabolic pathways, in particular galactose metabolism, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, and starch and sucrose metabolism. These results suggested that energy metabolism is important at the metabolic level in dormancy release following GA4 treatment. We also found that more than 10-fold differences in abundance were observed for many metabolites, including sucrose, proline, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid, which might play important roles during the dormancy process. The current research extends our understanding of the mechanisms involved in budburst and dormancy release in response to GA4 and provides a theoretical basis for applying GA4 to release dormancy.

No MeSH data available.


Three-dimensional PCA score plot for GA4 treatment, showing clear differences between 0 and 5 days of GA4 treatment and no clear difference between 5 and 10 days of GA4 treatment. This result indicates variation in metabolites in response to GA4 treatment. G0, G5, and G10 denote GA4 treatment after 0, 5, and 10 days, respectively.
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fig1: Three-dimensional PCA score plot for GA4 treatment, showing clear differences between 0 and 5 days of GA4 treatment and no clear difference between 5 and 10 days of GA4 treatment. This result indicates variation in metabolites in response to GA4 treatment. G0, G5, and G10 denote GA4 treatment after 0, 5, and 10 days, respectively.

Mentions: To verify the reliability of metabolomic analysis, we obtained the GC–MS TIC for 42 Japanese apricot flower bud samples. An obvious chromatographic difference was observed between sample groups, and the retention times were reproducible and stable, indicating the reliability of metabolomic analysis (Supplementary Figure S1). We also generated three-dimensional PCA plots for metabolic profile changes, to systematically assess the metabolic responses due to GA4 treatment. Figure 1 shows a clear separation between G0 and G5, and no significant separation between G5 and G10, suggesting that 5 days of GA4 application led to many changes in metabolites (compared with 0 days of GA4 application) and that only a few metabolites changed in abundance between 5 and 10 days of GA4 application. We also observed a clear separation between W0 and W10, and no clear separation between W0 and W5, indicating that clear metabolic differences existed after 10 days of water treatment and that few metabolic differences existed between 5 and 0 days of water treatment (Figure 2).


Metabolic changes upon flower bud break in Japanese apricot are enhanced by exogenous GA4.

Zhuang W, Gao Z, Wen L, Huo X, Cai B, Zhang Z - Hortic Res (2015)

Three-dimensional PCA score plot for GA4 treatment, showing clear differences between 0 and 5 days of GA4 treatment and no clear difference between 5 and 10 days of GA4 treatment. This result indicates variation in metabolites in response to GA4 treatment. G0, G5, and G10 denote GA4 treatment after 0, 5, and 10 days, respectively.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588617&req=5

fig1: Three-dimensional PCA score plot for GA4 treatment, showing clear differences between 0 and 5 days of GA4 treatment and no clear difference between 5 and 10 days of GA4 treatment. This result indicates variation in metabolites in response to GA4 treatment. G0, G5, and G10 denote GA4 treatment after 0, 5, and 10 days, respectively.
Mentions: To verify the reliability of metabolomic analysis, we obtained the GC–MS TIC for 42 Japanese apricot flower bud samples. An obvious chromatographic difference was observed between sample groups, and the retention times were reproducible and stable, indicating the reliability of metabolomic analysis (Supplementary Figure S1). We also generated three-dimensional PCA plots for metabolic profile changes, to systematically assess the metabolic responses due to GA4 treatment. Figure 1 shows a clear separation between G0 and G5, and no significant separation between G5 and G10, suggesting that 5 days of GA4 application led to many changes in metabolites (compared with 0 days of GA4 application) and that only a few metabolites changed in abundance between 5 and 10 days of GA4 application. We also observed a clear separation between W0 and W10, and no clear separation between W0 and W5, indicating that clear metabolic differences existed after 10 days of water treatment and that few metabolic differences existed between 5 and 0 days of water treatment (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: Gibberellin (GA4) has a significant effect on promoting dormancy release in flower buds of Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc).These results suggested that energy metabolism is important at the metabolic level in dormancy release following GA4 treatment.We also found that more than 10-fold differences in abundance were observed for many metabolites, including sucrose, proline, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid, which might play important roles during the dormancy process.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University , Nanjing 210095, China.

ABSTRACT
Gibberellin (GA4) has a significant effect on promoting dormancy release in flower buds of Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc). The transcriptomic and proteomic changes that occur after GA4 treatment have been reported previously; however, the metabolic changes brought about by GA4 remain unknown. The present study was undertaken to assess changes in metabolites in response to GA4 treatment, as determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and principal component analysis. Fifty-five metabolites that exhibited more than two-fold differences in abundance (P < 0.05) between samples collected over time after a given treatment or between samples exposed to different treatments were studied further. These metabolites were categorized into six main groups: amino acids and their isoforms (10), amino acid derivatives (7), sugars and polyols (14), organic acids (12), fatty acids (4), and others (8). All of these groups are involved in various metabolic pathways, in particular galactose metabolism, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, and starch and sucrose metabolism. These results suggested that energy metabolism is important at the metabolic level in dormancy release following GA4 treatment. We also found that more than 10-fold differences in abundance were observed for many metabolites, including sucrose, proline, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid, which might play important roles during the dormancy process. The current research extends our understanding of the mechanisms involved in budburst and dormancy release in response to GA4 and provides a theoretical basis for applying GA4 to release dormancy.

No MeSH data available.