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Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum).

Williams AR, Ramsay A, Hansen TV, Ropiak HM, Mejer H, Nejsum P, Mueller-Harvey I, Thamsborg SM - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated.It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy.Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

ABSTRACT
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Ultrastructural changes in Ascaris suum exposed to trans-cinnamaldehyde.Transmission electron micrographs of A. suum fourth-stage larvae exposed to either culture media (Control) or 236 μM trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA) for 12 hours. For all panels scale bar indicates 2 μm. (a) Cuticle (cu) and underlying Muscular (mu) tissue—note the lesions in the muscle tissue underlying the cuticle and hypodermis in parasites exposed to CA (red arrows). (b) Digestive tissues showing the microvilli (mv) overlying the intestinal lumen—note the destruction of the villi (red circle) and the presence of large vacuoles (red arrow) in parasites exposed to CA.
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f6: Ultrastructural changes in Ascaris suum exposed to trans-cinnamaldehyde.Transmission electron micrographs of A. suum fourth-stage larvae exposed to either culture media (Control) or 236 μM trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA) for 12 hours. For all panels scale bar indicates 2 μm. (a) Cuticle (cu) and underlying Muscular (mu) tissue—note the lesions in the muscle tissue underlying the cuticle and hypodermis in parasites exposed to CA (red arrows). (b) Digestive tissues showing the microvilli (mv) overlying the intestinal lumen—note the destruction of the villi (red circle) and the presence of large vacuoles (red arrow) in parasites exposed to CA.

Mentions: To gain insight into the possible anthelmintic mechanisms of CA, A. suum L4 that had been exposed to a high concentration of CA (236 μM) were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Examination of the cuticle and hypodermis revealed no major changes in the CA-exposed larvae, however some localised tissue damage and lesions were observed in the muscular layer underlying the hypodermis (Fig. 6A). The most striking damage to the CA-exposed larvae occurred in the digestive tissues (Fig. 6B). Whilst control larvae had a regular, intact gut with undamaged microvilli, the same tissues were completely destroyed in larvae exposed to CA, with the microvilli having lost all integrity, and with massive lesions and vacuoles also present. Thus, it appears that damage to the internal digestive tissues may be at least partly responsible for the anthelmintic activity of CA.


Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum).

Williams AR, Ramsay A, Hansen TV, Ropiak HM, Mejer H, Nejsum P, Mueller-Harvey I, Thamsborg SM - Sci Rep (2015)

Ultrastructural changes in Ascaris suum exposed to trans-cinnamaldehyde.Transmission electron micrographs of A. suum fourth-stage larvae exposed to either culture media (Control) or 236 μM trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA) for 12 hours. For all panels scale bar indicates 2 μm. (a) Cuticle (cu) and underlying Muscular (mu) tissue—note the lesions in the muscle tissue underlying the cuticle and hypodermis in parasites exposed to CA (red arrows). (b) Digestive tissues showing the microvilli (mv) overlying the intestinal lumen—note the destruction of the villi (red circle) and the presence of large vacuoles (red arrow) in parasites exposed to CA.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588565&req=5

f6: Ultrastructural changes in Ascaris suum exposed to trans-cinnamaldehyde.Transmission electron micrographs of A. suum fourth-stage larvae exposed to either culture media (Control) or 236 μM trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA) for 12 hours. For all panels scale bar indicates 2 μm. (a) Cuticle (cu) and underlying Muscular (mu) tissue—note the lesions in the muscle tissue underlying the cuticle and hypodermis in parasites exposed to CA (red arrows). (b) Digestive tissues showing the microvilli (mv) overlying the intestinal lumen—note the destruction of the villi (red circle) and the presence of large vacuoles (red arrow) in parasites exposed to CA.
Mentions: To gain insight into the possible anthelmintic mechanisms of CA, A. suum L4 that had been exposed to a high concentration of CA (236 μM) were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Examination of the cuticle and hypodermis revealed no major changes in the CA-exposed larvae, however some localised tissue damage and lesions were observed in the muscular layer underlying the hypodermis (Fig. 6A). The most striking damage to the CA-exposed larvae occurred in the digestive tissues (Fig. 6B). Whilst control larvae had a regular, intact gut with undamaged microvilli, the same tissues were completely destroyed in larvae exposed to CA, with the microvilli having lost all integrity, and with massive lesions and vacuoles also present. Thus, it appears that damage to the internal digestive tissues may be at least partly responsible for the anthelmintic activity of CA.

Bottom Line: Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated.It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy.Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

ABSTRACT
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus