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Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum).

Williams AR, Ramsay A, Hansen TV, Ropiak HM, Mejer H, Nejsum P, Mueller-Harvey I, Thamsborg SM - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated.It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy.Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

ABSTRACT
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Anthelmintic effects of isolated proanthocyanidin (PAC) fractions.(a) Inhibition of Ascaris suum third-stage larvae (L3) migration after incubation in PAC fractions F1 and F2. Inhibition is expressed relative to larvae incubated only in culture media. Results are the means of two independent experiments, each performed in triplicate. Error bars indicate the inter-replicate SEM. (b) Inhibition of A. suum fourth-stage larvae (L4) motility after incubation in PAC fraction F2. Results are from a single experiment performed in triplicate. Error bars indicate the inter-replicate SEM. (c) Incubation in PVPP does not remove anthelmintic effects of cinnamon bark extract. Results are the means of two independent experiments, each performed in triplicate.
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f4: Anthelmintic effects of isolated proanthocyanidin (PAC) fractions.(a) Inhibition of Ascaris suum third-stage larvae (L3) migration after incubation in PAC fractions F1 and F2. Inhibition is expressed relative to larvae incubated only in culture media. Results are the means of two independent experiments, each performed in triplicate. Error bars indicate the inter-replicate SEM. (b) Inhibition of A. suum fourth-stage larvae (L4) motility after incubation in PAC fraction F2. Results are from a single experiment performed in triplicate. Error bars indicate the inter-replicate SEM. (c) Incubation in PVPP does not remove anthelmintic effects of cinnamon bark extract. Results are the means of two independent experiments, each performed in triplicate.

Mentions: We next tested the F1 and F2 PAC-enriched fractions in migration inhibition assays with A. suum L3. In contrast to the experiments with the extract, here larvae remained alive after overnight incubation although their migratory ability was impaired (Fig. 4A), consistent with our previous study on A. suum L3 using a range of PAC fractions with exclusively B-type linkages22. Similarly, exposure of A. suum L4 to the PAC F2 fraction resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in motility (Fig. 4B), but the activity was far less potent than that observed previously for the whole extract (Fig. 2B). Therefore, we hypothesised that the PAC in the extract played a lesser role in the potent anthelmintic properties. To confirm this, we depleted the whole extract of PAC by overnight incubation in polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP)26 and repeated the L3 migration inhibition assay. Depletion of PAC did not affect the potency of the extract, whereas we previously observed that depletion of PAC from a range of other plant extracts reduced or abolished the observed anthelmintic effects22. Therefore, we concluded that the mixed A- and B-type PAC in the extract have comparable anthelmintic activity to the B-type PAC obtained from other plant sources22, and that in the case of cinnamon bark, they do not seem responsible for the potent activity of the extract.


Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum).

Williams AR, Ramsay A, Hansen TV, Ropiak HM, Mejer H, Nejsum P, Mueller-Harvey I, Thamsborg SM - Sci Rep (2015)

Anthelmintic effects of isolated proanthocyanidin (PAC) fractions.(a) Inhibition of Ascaris suum third-stage larvae (L3) migration after incubation in PAC fractions F1 and F2. Inhibition is expressed relative to larvae incubated only in culture media. Results are the means of two independent experiments, each performed in triplicate. Error bars indicate the inter-replicate SEM. (b) Inhibition of A. suum fourth-stage larvae (L4) motility after incubation in PAC fraction F2. Results are from a single experiment performed in triplicate. Error bars indicate the inter-replicate SEM. (c) Incubation in PVPP does not remove anthelmintic effects of cinnamon bark extract. Results are the means of two independent experiments, each performed in triplicate.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588565&req=5

f4: Anthelmintic effects of isolated proanthocyanidin (PAC) fractions.(a) Inhibition of Ascaris suum third-stage larvae (L3) migration after incubation in PAC fractions F1 and F2. Inhibition is expressed relative to larvae incubated only in culture media. Results are the means of two independent experiments, each performed in triplicate. Error bars indicate the inter-replicate SEM. (b) Inhibition of A. suum fourth-stage larvae (L4) motility after incubation in PAC fraction F2. Results are from a single experiment performed in triplicate. Error bars indicate the inter-replicate SEM. (c) Incubation in PVPP does not remove anthelmintic effects of cinnamon bark extract. Results are the means of two independent experiments, each performed in triplicate.
Mentions: We next tested the F1 and F2 PAC-enriched fractions in migration inhibition assays with A. suum L3. In contrast to the experiments with the extract, here larvae remained alive after overnight incubation although their migratory ability was impaired (Fig. 4A), consistent with our previous study on A. suum L3 using a range of PAC fractions with exclusively B-type linkages22. Similarly, exposure of A. suum L4 to the PAC F2 fraction resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in motility (Fig. 4B), but the activity was far less potent than that observed previously for the whole extract (Fig. 2B). Therefore, we hypothesised that the PAC in the extract played a lesser role in the potent anthelmintic properties. To confirm this, we depleted the whole extract of PAC by overnight incubation in polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP)26 and repeated the L3 migration inhibition assay. Depletion of PAC did not affect the potency of the extract, whereas we previously observed that depletion of PAC from a range of other plant extracts reduced or abolished the observed anthelmintic effects22. Therefore, we concluded that the mixed A- and B-type PAC in the extract have comparable anthelmintic activity to the B-type PAC obtained from other plant sources22, and that in the case of cinnamon bark, they do not seem responsible for the potent activity of the extract.

Bottom Line: Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated.It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy.Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

ABSTRACT
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus