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Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum).

Williams AR, Ramsay A, Hansen TV, Ropiak HM, Mejer H, Nejsum P, Mueller-Harvey I, Thamsborg SM - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated.It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy.Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

ABSTRACT
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Anthelmintic effects of cinnamon bark extract against Ascaris suum.(a) Inhibition of A. suum third-stage larvae migration after incubation in cinnamon bark extract. Inhibition is expressed relative to larvae incubated only in culture media. Results are the means of three independent experiments, each performed in triplicate. (b) Inhibition of A. suum fourth-stage larvae motility after incubation in the cinnamon bark extract. Results are from a single experiment performed in triplicate.
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f2: Anthelmintic effects of cinnamon bark extract against Ascaris suum.(a) Inhibition of A. suum third-stage larvae migration after incubation in cinnamon bark extract. Inhibition is expressed relative to larvae incubated only in culture media. Results are the means of three independent experiments, each performed in triplicate. (b) Inhibition of A. suum fourth-stage larvae motility after incubation in the cinnamon bark extract. Results are from a single experiment performed in triplicate.

Mentions: We first used a migration inhibition assay to test for activity against third-stage larvae (L3), the stage of the parasite that emerges from embryonated eggs to infect the host22. Strikingly, overnight incubation of L3 in the cinnamon extract at concentrations between 125 and 1000 μg/mL resulted in 100% inhibition of larval migration (Fig. 2A). In contrast to this, we previously observed that extracts prepared from a number of other bioactive plant sources induced a less potent, dose-dependent inhibition of migration within the tested range of extract concentrations22. Subsequent observation of the larvae during incubation in the cinnamon extract revealed that at concentrations ≥250 μg/mL, all larvae died within two-three hours of incubation. We confirmed the potency of the cinnamon extract in a second experiment using fourth-stage larvae (L4) of A. suum recovered from the intestine of pigs after experimental infection, and again observed mortality of larvae within hours of in vitro incubation (Fig. 2B).


Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum).

Williams AR, Ramsay A, Hansen TV, Ropiak HM, Mejer H, Nejsum P, Mueller-Harvey I, Thamsborg SM - Sci Rep (2015)

Anthelmintic effects of cinnamon bark extract against Ascaris suum.(a) Inhibition of A. suum third-stage larvae migration after incubation in cinnamon bark extract. Inhibition is expressed relative to larvae incubated only in culture media. Results are the means of three independent experiments, each performed in triplicate. (b) Inhibition of A. suum fourth-stage larvae motility after incubation in the cinnamon bark extract. Results are from a single experiment performed in triplicate.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588565&req=5

f2: Anthelmintic effects of cinnamon bark extract against Ascaris suum.(a) Inhibition of A. suum third-stage larvae migration after incubation in cinnamon bark extract. Inhibition is expressed relative to larvae incubated only in culture media. Results are the means of three independent experiments, each performed in triplicate. (b) Inhibition of A. suum fourth-stage larvae motility after incubation in the cinnamon bark extract. Results are from a single experiment performed in triplicate.
Mentions: We first used a migration inhibition assay to test for activity against third-stage larvae (L3), the stage of the parasite that emerges from embryonated eggs to infect the host22. Strikingly, overnight incubation of L3 in the cinnamon extract at concentrations between 125 and 1000 μg/mL resulted in 100% inhibition of larval migration (Fig. 2A). In contrast to this, we previously observed that extracts prepared from a number of other bioactive plant sources induced a less potent, dose-dependent inhibition of migration within the tested range of extract concentrations22. Subsequent observation of the larvae during incubation in the cinnamon extract revealed that at concentrations ≥250 μg/mL, all larvae died within two-three hours of incubation. We confirmed the potency of the cinnamon extract in a second experiment using fourth-stage larvae (L4) of A. suum recovered from the intestine of pigs after experimental infection, and again observed mortality of larvae within hours of in vitro incubation (Fig. 2B).

Bottom Line: Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated.It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy.Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

ABSTRACT
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus