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Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum).

Williams AR, Ramsay A, Hansen TV, Ropiak HM, Mejer H, Nejsum P, Mueller-Harvey I, Thamsborg SM - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated.It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy.Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

ABSTRACT
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Examples of an A-type and a B-type procyanidin dimer.
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f1: Examples of an A-type and a B-type procyanidin dimer.

Mentions: The bark of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been used for millennia as a traditional remedy in herbal medicine14. It contains high amounts of the essential oil trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA), as well as being a good source of proanthocyanidins (PAC), a group of plant polyphenols consisting of flavan-3-ol oligomers and polymers15. PAC structures vary widely depending on the degree of polymerization and nature of their flavan-3-ol subunits. The four most common flavan-3-ols are catechin and its cis isomer epicatechin (which give rise to procyanidin-type PAC), or gallocatechin and its cis isomer epigallocatechin (which give rise to prodelphinidin-type PAC). The flavan-3-ol units are linked mainly through the C4 → C8 inter-flavanol bond (B-type PAC) but flavan-3-ols can also be doubly linked by an additional ether bond between C2→O7 (A-type PAC)16 (Fig. 1). Cinnamon bark is relatively unusual in that it has been reported to contain PAC with a high number of A-type bonds17. A number of studies have investigated the anti-parasitic properties of PAC from a range of different plant sources, with reports of efficacy against both protozoan1819 and helminth20 parasites, however it has not been established whether increased proportions of A- linkages in the PAC molecules can increase the potency of the anthelmintic activity. Moreover, CA has been shown to have anti-parasitic activity against Eimeria infections in poultry21, but there have been no reports on activity against helminths. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the anthelmintic properties of cinnamon bark and characterise its active compounds, in order to determine if this may represent a useful natural resource for control of gastrointestinal nematodes.


Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum).

Williams AR, Ramsay A, Hansen TV, Ropiak HM, Mejer H, Nejsum P, Mueller-Harvey I, Thamsborg SM - Sci Rep (2015)

Examples of an A-type and a B-type procyanidin dimer.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588565&req=5

f1: Examples of an A-type and a B-type procyanidin dimer.
Mentions: The bark of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been used for millennia as a traditional remedy in herbal medicine14. It contains high amounts of the essential oil trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA), as well as being a good source of proanthocyanidins (PAC), a group of plant polyphenols consisting of flavan-3-ol oligomers and polymers15. PAC structures vary widely depending on the degree of polymerization and nature of their flavan-3-ol subunits. The four most common flavan-3-ols are catechin and its cis isomer epicatechin (which give rise to procyanidin-type PAC), or gallocatechin and its cis isomer epigallocatechin (which give rise to prodelphinidin-type PAC). The flavan-3-ol units are linked mainly through the C4 → C8 inter-flavanol bond (B-type PAC) but flavan-3-ols can also be doubly linked by an additional ether bond between C2→O7 (A-type PAC)16 (Fig. 1). Cinnamon bark is relatively unusual in that it has been reported to contain PAC with a high number of A-type bonds17. A number of studies have investigated the anti-parasitic properties of PAC from a range of different plant sources, with reports of efficacy against both protozoan1819 and helminth20 parasites, however it has not been established whether increased proportions of A- linkages in the PAC molecules can increase the potency of the anthelmintic activity. Moreover, CA has been shown to have anti-parasitic activity against Eimeria infections in poultry21, but there have been no reports on activity against helminths. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the anthelmintic properties of cinnamon bark and characterise its active compounds, in order to determine if this may represent a useful natural resource for control of gastrointestinal nematodes.

Bottom Line: Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated.It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy.Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

ABSTRACT
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus