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What factors control superficial lava dome explosivity?

Boudon G, Balcone-Boissard H, Villemant B, Morgan DJ - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Superficial explosion of a growing lava dome may be promoted through porosity reduction caused by both vesicle flattening due to gas escape and syn-eruptive cristobalite precipitation.Explosive activity is thus more likely to occur at the onset of lava dome extrusion, in agreement with observations, as the likelihood of superficial lava dome explosions depends inversely on lava dome volume.This new result is of interest for the whole volcanological community and for risk management.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Univ. Paris Diderot, CNRS, F-75005, Paris, France.

ABSTRACT
Dome-forming eruption is a frequent eruptive style and a major hazard on numerous volcanoes worldwide. Lava domes are built by slow extrusion of degassed, viscous magma and may be destroyed by gravitational collapse or explosion. The triggering of lava dome explosions is poorly understood: here we propose a new model of superficial lava-dome explosivity based upon a textural and geochemical study (vesicularity, microcrystallinity, cristobalite distribution, residual water contents, crystal transit times) of clasts produced by key eruptions. Superficial explosion of a growing lava dome may be promoted through porosity reduction caused by both vesicle flattening due to gas escape and syn-eruptive cristobalite precipitation. Both processes generate an impermeable and rigid carapace allowing overpressurisation of the inner parts of the lava dome by the rapid input of vesiculated magma batches. The relative thickness of the cristobalite-rich carapace is an inverse function of the external lava dome surface area. Explosive activity is thus more likely to occur at the onset of lava dome extrusion, in agreement with observations, as the likelihood of superficial lava dome explosions depends inversely on lava dome volume. This new result is of interest for the whole volcanological community and for risk management.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Bulk rock vesicularity distribution (frequency %) of samples from Pyroclastic Density Current (PDC) deposits, as a function of vesicularity (in volume %).The distribution is based on at least 100 clasts for each deposit in the fraction 16–32 mm, The left column refers to D-PDCs (Montagne Pelée : May 8th, 1902, lava dome phase of P1 eruption; Puy Chopine). The right column refers to C-PDCs (Montagne Pelée, 2 C-PDCs from the 1929–1932 eruption; Puy de Dôme; Santiaguito, 1929). The C-PDC vesicularity distribution is unimodal for the four examples (centered around 27% and 22% for Montagne Pelée, 32%, for Puy de Dôme, and 17% for Santiaguito). The D-PDC vesicularity distribution is multimodal. In D-PDC deposits highly vesiculated clasts (>40%) are much less abundant in May 8th, 1902 of Montagne Pelée (7%) than in P1 eruption (15%) and Puy Chopine (30%).
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f1: Bulk rock vesicularity distribution (frequency %) of samples from Pyroclastic Density Current (PDC) deposits, as a function of vesicularity (in volume %).The distribution is based on at least 100 clasts for each deposit in the fraction 16–32 mm, The left column refers to D-PDCs (Montagne Pelée : May 8th, 1902, lava dome phase of P1 eruption; Puy Chopine). The right column refers to C-PDCs (Montagne Pelée, 2 C-PDCs from the 1929–1932 eruption; Puy de Dôme; Santiaguito, 1929). The C-PDC vesicularity distribution is unimodal for the four examples (centered around 27% and 22% for Montagne Pelée, 32%, for Puy de Dôme, and 17% for Santiaguito). The D-PDC vesicularity distribution is multimodal. In D-PDC deposits highly vesiculated clasts (>40%) are much less abundant in May 8th, 1902 of Montagne Pelée (7%) than in P1 eruption (15%) and Puy Chopine (30%).

Mentions: C-PDC clasts have a narrow and unimodal distribution of vesicularities (20–40%), whereas D-PDC clasts display a much larger range (10–75%) (Fig. 1). The most vesiculated clasts (vesicularity >50%) of D-PDC display characteristic pumiceous textures with subspherical and disconnected vesicles and only rare microlites (Fig. 2a,d). With decreasing vesicularity, vesicle number and size decrease, vesicle shapes become irregular with large vesicles concentrating in some areas, and both groundmass/vesicles and microlite/glass ratios increase (Fig. 2b,c,e). The less-vesiculated clasts show two types of textures: (i) in most clasts, vesicles are rare and crystalline silica precipitates abundant (Fig. 2c,f; Table 1). Crystalline silica exists as cristobalite, as identified by Raman spectrometry (Fig. 3a and supplementary material) and occurs either as cracked infillings in large vesicles (up to 30 μm in diameter) or as a pervasive form in small vesicles (down to 1 μm in diameter) (Figs 2c,f and 3b). The weight fraction of cristobalite in D-PDC clasts decreases with increasing vesicularity (Fig. 4a). No cristobalite is observed in the most vesiculated clasts. (ii) in a few clasts, a texture of sparse, small and irregular vesicles that are widely separated exists; these clasts are cristobalite-free.


What factors control superficial lava dome explosivity?

Boudon G, Balcone-Boissard H, Villemant B, Morgan DJ - Sci Rep (2015)

Bulk rock vesicularity distribution (frequency %) of samples from Pyroclastic Density Current (PDC) deposits, as a function of vesicularity (in volume %).The distribution is based on at least 100 clasts for each deposit in the fraction 16–32 mm, The left column refers to D-PDCs (Montagne Pelée : May 8th, 1902, lava dome phase of P1 eruption; Puy Chopine). The right column refers to C-PDCs (Montagne Pelée, 2 C-PDCs from the 1929–1932 eruption; Puy de Dôme; Santiaguito, 1929). The C-PDC vesicularity distribution is unimodal for the four examples (centered around 27% and 22% for Montagne Pelée, 32%, for Puy de Dôme, and 17% for Santiaguito). The D-PDC vesicularity distribution is multimodal. In D-PDC deposits highly vesiculated clasts (>40%) are much less abundant in May 8th, 1902 of Montagne Pelée (7%) than in P1 eruption (15%) and Puy Chopine (30%).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588564&req=5

f1: Bulk rock vesicularity distribution (frequency %) of samples from Pyroclastic Density Current (PDC) deposits, as a function of vesicularity (in volume %).The distribution is based on at least 100 clasts for each deposit in the fraction 16–32 mm, The left column refers to D-PDCs (Montagne Pelée : May 8th, 1902, lava dome phase of P1 eruption; Puy Chopine). The right column refers to C-PDCs (Montagne Pelée, 2 C-PDCs from the 1929–1932 eruption; Puy de Dôme; Santiaguito, 1929). The C-PDC vesicularity distribution is unimodal for the four examples (centered around 27% and 22% for Montagne Pelée, 32%, for Puy de Dôme, and 17% for Santiaguito). The D-PDC vesicularity distribution is multimodal. In D-PDC deposits highly vesiculated clasts (>40%) are much less abundant in May 8th, 1902 of Montagne Pelée (7%) than in P1 eruption (15%) and Puy Chopine (30%).
Mentions: C-PDC clasts have a narrow and unimodal distribution of vesicularities (20–40%), whereas D-PDC clasts display a much larger range (10–75%) (Fig. 1). The most vesiculated clasts (vesicularity >50%) of D-PDC display characteristic pumiceous textures with subspherical and disconnected vesicles and only rare microlites (Fig. 2a,d). With decreasing vesicularity, vesicle number and size decrease, vesicle shapes become irregular with large vesicles concentrating in some areas, and both groundmass/vesicles and microlite/glass ratios increase (Fig. 2b,c,e). The less-vesiculated clasts show two types of textures: (i) in most clasts, vesicles are rare and crystalline silica precipitates abundant (Fig. 2c,f; Table 1). Crystalline silica exists as cristobalite, as identified by Raman spectrometry (Fig. 3a and supplementary material) and occurs either as cracked infillings in large vesicles (up to 30 μm in diameter) or as a pervasive form in small vesicles (down to 1 μm in diameter) (Figs 2c,f and 3b). The weight fraction of cristobalite in D-PDC clasts decreases with increasing vesicularity (Fig. 4a). No cristobalite is observed in the most vesiculated clasts. (ii) in a few clasts, a texture of sparse, small and irregular vesicles that are widely separated exists; these clasts are cristobalite-free.

Bottom Line: Superficial explosion of a growing lava dome may be promoted through porosity reduction caused by both vesicle flattening due to gas escape and syn-eruptive cristobalite precipitation.Explosive activity is thus more likely to occur at the onset of lava dome extrusion, in agreement with observations, as the likelihood of superficial lava dome explosions depends inversely on lava dome volume.This new result is of interest for the whole volcanological community and for risk management.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Univ. Paris Diderot, CNRS, F-75005, Paris, France.

ABSTRACT
Dome-forming eruption is a frequent eruptive style and a major hazard on numerous volcanoes worldwide. Lava domes are built by slow extrusion of degassed, viscous magma and may be destroyed by gravitational collapse or explosion. The triggering of lava dome explosions is poorly understood: here we propose a new model of superficial lava-dome explosivity based upon a textural and geochemical study (vesicularity, microcrystallinity, cristobalite distribution, residual water contents, crystal transit times) of clasts produced by key eruptions. Superficial explosion of a growing lava dome may be promoted through porosity reduction caused by both vesicle flattening due to gas escape and syn-eruptive cristobalite precipitation. Both processes generate an impermeable and rigid carapace allowing overpressurisation of the inner parts of the lava dome by the rapid input of vesiculated magma batches. The relative thickness of the cristobalite-rich carapace is an inverse function of the external lava dome surface area. Explosive activity is thus more likely to occur at the onset of lava dome extrusion, in agreement with observations, as the likelihood of superficial lava dome explosions depends inversely on lava dome volume. This new result is of interest for the whole volcanological community and for risk management.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus