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Motor function benefits of visual restoration measured in age-related cataract and simulated patients: Case-control and clinical experimental studies.

Ayaki M, Nagura T, Toyama Y, Negishi K, Tsubota K - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: In simulated patients, mean velocity was 87.0 ± 11.4% of normal vision with a 3° visual field and 92.4 ± 12.3% of normal when counting fingers.Initial velocity was 89.1 ± 14.6% of normal vision with a 3° visual field and 92.7 ± 11.6% of normal when counting fingers.There was a significant difference between normal and impaired visual function (P < 0.05).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departments of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

ABSTRACT
The aim of the present study was to measure gait velocity in cataract and simulated patients. The study was performed on 239 cataract patients, 115 age-matched subjects, and 11 simulated patients. We measured gait velocity and analyzed gait using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Mean gait velocity before and 2 and 7 months after cataract surgery was 0.91 ± 0.19, 1.04 ± 0.21, and 1.06 ± 0.21 m/s, respectively, for males and 0.84 ± 0.22, 0.91 ± 0.24, and 0.92 ± 0.25 m/s, respectively, for females. The increase after surgery was significant in both groups at 7 months (P < 0.05). Gait velocity was significantly slower in cataract patients compared with controls before surgery, but no longer different after surgery. In simulated patients, mean velocity was 87.0 ± 11.4% of normal vision with a 3° visual field and 92.4 ± 12.3% of normal when counting fingers. Initial velocity was 89.1 ± 14.6% of normal vision with a 3° visual field and 92.7 ± 11.6% of normal when counting fingers. There was a significant difference between normal and impaired visual function (P < 0.05). The results demonstrate the close relationship between visual function and gait in cataract patients and simulated patients.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Simulation goggles and simulated visual field.“Simulated patients” wore goggles (top left) to simulate reduced visual function to the vision of 20/600. Representative results of visual field analysis (Humphrey Field Analyzer 30-2 program; Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany) with goggles restricting the visual field to 3° show a successful simulation effect (bottom left and center). Motion analyses were performed using a motion capture system comprising eight cameras and a force plate (right).
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f1: Simulation goggles and simulated visual field.“Simulated patients” wore goggles (top left) to simulate reduced visual function to the vision of 20/600. Representative results of visual field analysis (Humphrey Field Analyzer 30-2 program; Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany) with goggles restricting the visual field to 3° show a successful simulation effect (bottom left and center). Motion analyses were performed using a motion capture system comprising eight cameras and a force plate (right).

Mentions: Eleven healthy male volunteers (aged 30–60 years; mean age 45 years; best corrected visual acuity 20/15) were recruited as simulated patients. Gait was evaluated in these subjects at the Gait Laboratory of the Department of Orthopedic Surgery using skin markers attached over the sacrum as part of a three-dimensional motion capture system (Qualysis®; Qualysis, Gothenburg, Sweden)3233 with eight cameras synchronized to a force plate (frequency 600 Hz; Type 4060-10; Bertec, Columbus, OH, USA). This point cluster method enables measurement of velocity, vector, acceleration, step length, pitch, and many other parameters of motor function. Gait velocity was analyzed using the markers on the sacrum, which can best trace the motion of the center of gravity in a subject. The data sampling frequency was 120 Hz, and mean and initial (mean velocity during the first 0.1 s of the first step) velocities were calculated. Simulated patients wore goggles with a smoked surface or pin hole (M. Takata Optical, Tokyo, Japan) to reduce visual function to a visual acuity of counting fingers and 20/600, or to reduce the visual field to 3°, respectively (Fig. 1). The simulated effects were confirmed in 10 healthy volunteers with normal vision (>20/15). The goggles simulated visual acuity within an error range of 10% for counting fingers at 20 cm and 20/600. The visual field was evaluated in simulated patients wearing goggles with a Humphrey Field Analyzer (Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany; 30-2 program) and the mean deviation was −29.9 ± 1.9 dB. The real visual field was ~3° (Fig. 1). This simulation is apparently equivalent to the visual field loss in advanced glaucoma; however, it is not very accurate and not a validated method for simulating advanced glaucomatous vision loss34.


Motor function benefits of visual restoration measured in age-related cataract and simulated patients: Case-control and clinical experimental studies.

Ayaki M, Nagura T, Toyama Y, Negishi K, Tsubota K - Sci Rep (2015)

Simulation goggles and simulated visual field.“Simulated patients” wore goggles (top left) to simulate reduced visual function to the vision of 20/600. Representative results of visual field analysis (Humphrey Field Analyzer 30-2 program; Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany) with goggles restricting the visual field to 3° show a successful simulation effect (bottom left and center). Motion analyses were performed using a motion capture system comprising eight cameras and a force plate (right).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588563&req=5

f1: Simulation goggles and simulated visual field.“Simulated patients” wore goggles (top left) to simulate reduced visual function to the vision of 20/600. Representative results of visual field analysis (Humphrey Field Analyzer 30-2 program; Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany) with goggles restricting the visual field to 3° show a successful simulation effect (bottom left and center). Motion analyses were performed using a motion capture system comprising eight cameras and a force plate (right).
Mentions: Eleven healthy male volunteers (aged 30–60 years; mean age 45 years; best corrected visual acuity 20/15) were recruited as simulated patients. Gait was evaluated in these subjects at the Gait Laboratory of the Department of Orthopedic Surgery using skin markers attached over the sacrum as part of a three-dimensional motion capture system (Qualysis®; Qualysis, Gothenburg, Sweden)3233 with eight cameras synchronized to a force plate (frequency 600 Hz; Type 4060-10; Bertec, Columbus, OH, USA). This point cluster method enables measurement of velocity, vector, acceleration, step length, pitch, and many other parameters of motor function. Gait velocity was analyzed using the markers on the sacrum, which can best trace the motion of the center of gravity in a subject. The data sampling frequency was 120 Hz, and mean and initial (mean velocity during the first 0.1 s of the first step) velocities were calculated. Simulated patients wore goggles with a smoked surface or pin hole (M. Takata Optical, Tokyo, Japan) to reduce visual function to a visual acuity of counting fingers and 20/600, or to reduce the visual field to 3°, respectively (Fig. 1). The simulated effects were confirmed in 10 healthy volunteers with normal vision (>20/15). The goggles simulated visual acuity within an error range of 10% for counting fingers at 20 cm and 20/600. The visual field was evaluated in simulated patients wearing goggles with a Humphrey Field Analyzer (Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany; 30-2 program) and the mean deviation was −29.9 ± 1.9 dB. The real visual field was ~3° (Fig. 1). This simulation is apparently equivalent to the visual field loss in advanced glaucoma; however, it is not very accurate and not a validated method for simulating advanced glaucomatous vision loss34.

Bottom Line: In simulated patients, mean velocity was 87.0 ± 11.4% of normal vision with a 3° visual field and 92.4 ± 12.3% of normal when counting fingers.Initial velocity was 89.1 ± 14.6% of normal vision with a 3° visual field and 92.7 ± 11.6% of normal when counting fingers.There was a significant difference between normal and impaired visual function (P < 0.05).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departments of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

ABSTRACT
The aim of the present study was to measure gait velocity in cataract and simulated patients. The study was performed on 239 cataract patients, 115 age-matched subjects, and 11 simulated patients. We measured gait velocity and analyzed gait using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Mean gait velocity before and 2 and 7 months after cataract surgery was 0.91 ± 0.19, 1.04 ± 0.21, and 1.06 ± 0.21 m/s, respectively, for males and 0.84 ± 0.22, 0.91 ± 0.24, and 0.92 ± 0.25 m/s, respectively, for females. The increase after surgery was significant in both groups at 7 months (P < 0.05). Gait velocity was significantly slower in cataract patients compared with controls before surgery, but no longer different after surgery. In simulated patients, mean velocity was 87.0 ± 11.4% of normal vision with a 3° visual field and 92.4 ± 12.3% of normal when counting fingers. Initial velocity was 89.1 ± 14.6% of normal vision with a 3° visual field and 92.7 ± 11.6% of normal when counting fingers. There was a significant difference between normal and impaired visual function (P < 0.05). The results demonstrate the close relationship between visual function and gait in cataract patients and simulated patients.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus