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Protocatechuic acid ameliorates neurocognitive functions impairment induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia.

Yin X, Zhang X, Lv C, Li C, Yu Y, Wang X, Han F - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: The effects of PCA on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and brain IL-1β levels were investigated.In addition, PCA administration also decreased the level of IL-1β in brain and increased the expression of BDNF and SYN.We conclude that PCA administration will ameliorate CIH-induced cognitive dysfunctions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong, 264003, China.

ABSTRACT
Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a serious consequence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and has deleterious effects on central neurons and neurocognitive functions. This study examined if protocatechuic acid (PCA) could improve learning and memory functions of rats exposed to CIH conditions and explore potential mechanisms. Neurocognitive functions were evaluated in male SD rats by step-through passive avoidance test and Morris water maze assay following exposure to CIH or room air conditions. Ultrastructure changes were investigated with transmission electron microscopy, and neuron apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL assays. Ultrastructure changes were investigated with transmission electron microscope and neuron apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL assays. The effects of PCA on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and brain IL-1β levels were investigated. Expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Cleaved Caspase-3, c-fos, SYN, BDNF and pro-BDNF were also studied along with JNK, P38 and ERK phosphorylation to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of PCA action. PCA was seen to enhance learning and memory ability, and alleviate oxidative stress, apoptosis and glial proliferation following CIH exposure in rats. In addition, PCA administration also decreased the level of IL-1β in brain and increased the expression of BDNF and SYN. We conclude that PCA administration will ameliorate CIH-induced cognitive dysfunctions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Potential mechanisms of PCA in ameliorating the neurocognitive dysfunction induced on exposure to CIH in a rat model of OSA.
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f7: Potential mechanisms of PCA in ameliorating the neurocognitive dysfunction induced on exposure to CIH in a rat model of OSA.

Mentions: This preclinical study explored the potential of PCA as therapy to prevent a morbidity of memory impairment induced by exposure to hypoxia/reoxygenation cycles that model the consequences of OSA (Fig. 7). PCA appears to influence CIH brain responses and protect from apoptosis, and favorably modulate glial proliferation and synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, PCA enhanced BDNF expression to improve long-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus and inhibit brain apoptosis. In addition, the present research also confirmed the antioxidant potential of PCA, therefore establishing it as effective therapeutic agent for clinical treatment of many neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress.


Protocatechuic acid ameliorates neurocognitive functions impairment induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia.

Yin X, Zhang X, Lv C, Li C, Yu Y, Wang X, Han F - Sci Rep (2015)

Potential mechanisms of PCA in ameliorating the neurocognitive dysfunction induced on exposure to CIH in a rat model of OSA.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588513&req=5

f7: Potential mechanisms of PCA in ameliorating the neurocognitive dysfunction induced on exposure to CIH in a rat model of OSA.
Mentions: This preclinical study explored the potential of PCA as therapy to prevent a morbidity of memory impairment induced by exposure to hypoxia/reoxygenation cycles that model the consequences of OSA (Fig. 7). PCA appears to influence CIH brain responses and protect from apoptosis, and favorably modulate glial proliferation and synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, PCA enhanced BDNF expression to improve long-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus and inhibit brain apoptosis. In addition, the present research also confirmed the antioxidant potential of PCA, therefore establishing it as effective therapeutic agent for clinical treatment of many neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress.

Bottom Line: The effects of PCA on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and brain IL-1β levels were investigated.In addition, PCA administration also decreased the level of IL-1β in brain and increased the expression of BDNF and SYN.We conclude that PCA administration will ameliorate CIH-induced cognitive dysfunctions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong, 264003, China.

ABSTRACT
Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a serious consequence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and has deleterious effects on central neurons and neurocognitive functions. This study examined if protocatechuic acid (PCA) could improve learning and memory functions of rats exposed to CIH conditions and explore potential mechanisms. Neurocognitive functions were evaluated in male SD rats by step-through passive avoidance test and Morris water maze assay following exposure to CIH or room air conditions. Ultrastructure changes were investigated with transmission electron microscopy, and neuron apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL assays. Ultrastructure changes were investigated with transmission electron microscope and neuron apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL assays. The effects of PCA on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and brain IL-1β levels were investigated. Expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Cleaved Caspase-3, c-fos, SYN, BDNF and pro-BDNF were also studied along with JNK, P38 and ERK phosphorylation to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of PCA action. PCA was seen to enhance learning and memory ability, and alleviate oxidative stress, apoptosis and glial proliferation following CIH exposure in rats. In addition, PCA administration also decreased the level of IL-1β in brain and increased the expression of BDNF and SYN. We conclude that PCA administration will ameliorate CIH-induced cognitive dysfunctions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus