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Protocatechuic acid ameliorates neurocognitive functions impairment induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia.

Yin X, Zhang X, Lv C, Li C, Yu Y, Wang X, Han F - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: The effects of PCA on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and brain IL-1β levels were investigated.In addition, PCA administration also decreased the level of IL-1β in brain and increased the expression of BDNF and SYN.We conclude that PCA administration will ameliorate CIH-induced cognitive dysfunctions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong, 264003, China.

ABSTRACT
Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a serious consequence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and has deleterious effects on central neurons and neurocognitive functions. This study examined if protocatechuic acid (PCA) could improve learning and memory functions of rats exposed to CIH conditions and explore potential mechanisms. Neurocognitive functions were evaluated in male SD rats by step-through passive avoidance test and Morris water maze assay following exposure to CIH or room air conditions. Ultrastructure changes were investigated with transmission electron microscopy, and neuron apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL assays. Ultrastructure changes were investigated with transmission electron microscope and neuron apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL assays. The effects of PCA on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and brain IL-1β levels were investigated. Expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Cleaved Caspase-3, c-fos, SYN, BDNF and pro-BDNF were also studied along with JNK, P38 and ERK phosphorylation to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of PCA action. PCA was seen to enhance learning and memory ability, and alleviate oxidative stress, apoptosis and glial proliferation following CIH exposure in rats. In addition, PCA administration also decreased the level of IL-1β in brain and increased the expression of BDNF and SYN. We conclude that PCA administration will ameliorate CIH-induced cognitive dysfunctions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

IHC index in rats exposed to room air (RA) or intermittent hypoxia (IH) and treated with PCA (***P < 0.001 vs. RA rats; P < 0.001 vs. CIH rats ; n = 3 rats in each group).
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f6: IHC index in rats exposed to room air (RA) or intermittent hypoxia (IH) and treated with PCA (***P < 0.001 vs. RA rats; P < 0.001 vs. CIH rats ; n = 3 rats in each group).

Mentions: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed for the astrocyte marker GFAP in order to determine whether PCA can affect glial proliferation after CIH exposure (Fig. 6). The IHC index of hippocampus was 2.508 ± 0.363, 60.472 ± 6.685 and 35.76 ± 1.419, respectively, in the RA group, CIH group and CIH+PCA group. The OD values of prefrontal cortex were 13.022 ± 2.429, 42.290 ± 4.736 and 28.122 ± 1.263. PCA administration reduced expression of GFAP in the cortex and hippocampus, indicating that our discovery provided further support for the view that PCA administration was able to attenuate CIH-induced increases in glial proliferation under CIH conditions.


Protocatechuic acid ameliorates neurocognitive functions impairment induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia.

Yin X, Zhang X, Lv C, Li C, Yu Y, Wang X, Han F - Sci Rep (2015)

IHC index in rats exposed to room air (RA) or intermittent hypoxia (IH) and treated with PCA (***P < 0.001 vs. RA rats; P < 0.001 vs. CIH rats ; n = 3 rats in each group).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588513&req=5

f6: IHC index in rats exposed to room air (RA) or intermittent hypoxia (IH) and treated with PCA (***P < 0.001 vs. RA rats; P < 0.001 vs. CIH rats ; n = 3 rats in each group).
Mentions: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed for the astrocyte marker GFAP in order to determine whether PCA can affect glial proliferation after CIH exposure (Fig. 6). The IHC index of hippocampus was 2.508 ± 0.363, 60.472 ± 6.685 and 35.76 ± 1.419, respectively, in the RA group, CIH group and CIH+PCA group. The OD values of prefrontal cortex were 13.022 ± 2.429, 42.290 ± 4.736 and 28.122 ± 1.263. PCA administration reduced expression of GFAP in the cortex and hippocampus, indicating that our discovery provided further support for the view that PCA administration was able to attenuate CIH-induced increases in glial proliferation under CIH conditions.

Bottom Line: The effects of PCA on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and brain IL-1β levels were investigated.In addition, PCA administration also decreased the level of IL-1β in brain and increased the expression of BDNF and SYN.We conclude that PCA administration will ameliorate CIH-induced cognitive dysfunctions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong, 264003, China.

ABSTRACT
Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a serious consequence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and has deleterious effects on central neurons and neurocognitive functions. This study examined if protocatechuic acid (PCA) could improve learning and memory functions of rats exposed to CIH conditions and explore potential mechanisms. Neurocognitive functions were evaluated in male SD rats by step-through passive avoidance test and Morris water maze assay following exposure to CIH or room air conditions. Ultrastructure changes were investigated with transmission electron microscopy, and neuron apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL assays. Ultrastructure changes were investigated with transmission electron microscope and neuron apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL assays. The effects of PCA on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and brain IL-1β levels were investigated. Expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Cleaved Caspase-3, c-fos, SYN, BDNF and pro-BDNF were also studied along with JNK, P38 and ERK phosphorylation to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of PCA action. PCA was seen to enhance learning and memory ability, and alleviate oxidative stress, apoptosis and glial proliferation following CIH exposure in rats. In addition, PCA administration also decreased the level of IL-1β in brain and increased the expression of BDNF and SYN. We conclude that PCA administration will ameliorate CIH-induced cognitive dysfunctions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus