Limits...
Protocatechuic acid ameliorates neurocognitive functions impairment induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia.

Yin X, Zhang X, Lv C, Li C, Yu Y, Wang X, Han F - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: The effects of PCA on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and brain IL-1β levels were investigated.In addition, PCA administration also decreased the level of IL-1β in brain and increased the expression of BDNF and SYN.We conclude that PCA administration will ameliorate CIH-induced cognitive dysfunctions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong, 264003, China.

ABSTRACT
Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a serious consequence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and has deleterious effects on central neurons and neurocognitive functions. This study examined if protocatechuic acid (PCA) could improve learning and memory functions of rats exposed to CIH conditions and explore potential mechanisms. Neurocognitive functions were evaluated in male SD rats by step-through passive avoidance test and Morris water maze assay following exposure to CIH or room air conditions. Ultrastructure changes were investigated with transmission electron microscopy, and neuron apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL assays. Ultrastructure changes were investigated with transmission electron microscope and neuron apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL assays. The effects of PCA on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and brain IL-1β levels were investigated. Expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Cleaved Caspase-3, c-fos, SYN, BDNF and pro-BDNF were also studied along with JNK, P38 and ERK phosphorylation to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of PCA action. PCA was seen to enhance learning and memory ability, and alleviate oxidative stress, apoptosis and glial proliferation following CIH exposure in rats. In addition, PCA administration also decreased the level of IL-1β in brain and increased the expression of BDNF and SYN. We conclude that PCA administration will ameliorate CIH-induced cognitive dysfunctions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effects of PCA on brain levels of SOD (a), MDA (b), GSH-Px (c), XOD(d) and NOX (e) against CIH-induced damage in rats. Values are presented as means ± SD for 10 mice in each group. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 and ***P < 0.001, vs. the RA group. #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01 and ###P < 0.001, compared to CIH group. n = 8.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588513&req=5

f4: Effects of PCA on brain levels of SOD (a), MDA (b), GSH-Px (c), XOD(d) and NOX (e) against CIH-induced damage in rats. Values are presented as means ± SD for 10 mice in each group. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 and ***P < 0.001, vs. the RA group. #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01 and ###P < 0.001, compared to CIH group. n = 8.

Mentions: The activities of GSH-Px and SOD were significantly decreased in both the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in the CIH group compared with the control group as shown in Fig. 4 a,c. On the other hand, under the same CIH conditions, rats administered with PCA showed a significant recovery of GSH-Px and SOD activities. The MDA contents in both the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in the CIH group were increased compared with the control group as shown in Fig. 4b while the concentrations of MDA in CIH+PCA group were declined compared with CIH group. The activities of XOD and NOX were significantly elevated in both the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in the CIH group compared with the control group as shown in Fig. 4d,e. However, rats administered with PCA showed a significant decline of XOD and NOX activities. In addition, PCA reduced the activity of XOD and NOX and the concentrations of MDA while increased the activity of GSH-Px and SOD. This observation indicates that PCA is capable of attenuating IH-induced increases in oxidative stress.


Protocatechuic acid ameliorates neurocognitive functions impairment induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia.

Yin X, Zhang X, Lv C, Li C, Yu Y, Wang X, Han F - Sci Rep (2015)

Effects of PCA on brain levels of SOD (a), MDA (b), GSH-Px (c), XOD(d) and NOX (e) against CIH-induced damage in rats. Values are presented as means ± SD for 10 mice in each group. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 and ***P < 0.001, vs. the RA group. #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01 and ###P < 0.001, compared to CIH group. n = 8.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588513&req=5

f4: Effects of PCA on brain levels of SOD (a), MDA (b), GSH-Px (c), XOD(d) and NOX (e) against CIH-induced damage in rats. Values are presented as means ± SD for 10 mice in each group. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 and ***P < 0.001, vs. the RA group. #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01 and ###P < 0.001, compared to CIH group. n = 8.
Mentions: The activities of GSH-Px and SOD were significantly decreased in both the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in the CIH group compared with the control group as shown in Fig. 4 a,c. On the other hand, under the same CIH conditions, rats administered with PCA showed a significant recovery of GSH-Px and SOD activities. The MDA contents in both the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in the CIH group were increased compared with the control group as shown in Fig. 4b while the concentrations of MDA in CIH+PCA group were declined compared with CIH group. The activities of XOD and NOX were significantly elevated in both the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in the CIH group compared with the control group as shown in Fig. 4d,e. However, rats administered with PCA showed a significant decline of XOD and NOX activities. In addition, PCA reduced the activity of XOD and NOX and the concentrations of MDA while increased the activity of GSH-Px and SOD. This observation indicates that PCA is capable of attenuating IH-induced increases in oxidative stress.

Bottom Line: The effects of PCA on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and brain IL-1β levels were investigated.In addition, PCA administration also decreased the level of IL-1β in brain and increased the expression of BDNF and SYN.We conclude that PCA administration will ameliorate CIH-induced cognitive dysfunctions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong, 264003, China.

ABSTRACT
Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a serious consequence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and has deleterious effects on central neurons and neurocognitive functions. This study examined if protocatechuic acid (PCA) could improve learning and memory functions of rats exposed to CIH conditions and explore potential mechanisms. Neurocognitive functions were evaluated in male SD rats by step-through passive avoidance test and Morris water maze assay following exposure to CIH or room air conditions. Ultrastructure changes were investigated with transmission electron microscopy, and neuron apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL assays. Ultrastructure changes were investigated with transmission electron microscope and neuron apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL assays. The effects of PCA on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and brain IL-1β levels were investigated. Expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Cleaved Caspase-3, c-fos, SYN, BDNF and pro-BDNF were also studied along with JNK, P38 and ERK phosphorylation to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of PCA action. PCA was seen to enhance learning and memory ability, and alleviate oxidative stress, apoptosis and glial proliferation following CIH exposure in rats. In addition, PCA administration also decreased the level of IL-1β in brain and increased the expression of BDNF and SYN. We conclude that PCA administration will ameliorate CIH-induced cognitive dysfunctions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus