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Protocatechuic acid ameliorates neurocognitive functions impairment induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia.

Yin X, Zhang X, Lv C, Li C, Yu Y, Wang X, Han F - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: The effects of PCA on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and brain IL-1β levels were investigated.In addition, PCA administration also decreased the level of IL-1β in brain and increased the expression of BDNF and SYN.We conclude that PCA administration will ameliorate CIH-induced cognitive dysfunctions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong, 264003, China.

ABSTRACT
Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a serious consequence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and has deleterious effects on central neurons and neurocognitive functions. This study examined if protocatechuic acid (PCA) could improve learning and memory functions of rats exposed to CIH conditions and explore potential mechanisms. Neurocognitive functions were evaluated in male SD rats by step-through passive avoidance test and Morris water maze assay following exposure to CIH or room air conditions. Ultrastructure changes were investigated with transmission electron microscopy, and neuron apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL assays. Ultrastructure changes were investigated with transmission electron microscope and neuron apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL assays. The effects of PCA on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and brain IL-1β levels were investigated. Expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Cleaved Caspase-3, c-fos, SYN, BDNF and pro-BDNF were also studied along with JNK, P38 and ERK phosphorylation to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of PCA action. PCA was seen to enhance learning and memory ability, and alleviate oxidative stress, apoptosis and glial proliferation following CIH exposure in rats. In addition, PCA administration also decreased the level of IL-1β in brain and increased the expression of BDNF and SYN. We conclude that PCA administration will ameliorate CIH-induced cognitive dysfunctions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Ultrastructural changes by transmission electron microscopy. No abnormal ultrastructural changes were found in the neurons of the prefrontal cortex (a,b) and hippocampus (g,h) in RA group. Karyopyknosis, chromatin margination and karyotheca breakage, mitochondria abnormalities including swelling, vacuolation and breakage of the cristae, Golgi body and endoplasmic reticulum swelling in the cortex of the prefrontal lobe (c,d) and hippocampus (I,j) were evident in the CIH treated groups. In PCA treated group, the pathological changes in the neurons of the prefrontal cortex (e,f) and hippocampus (k,l) were improved remarkably compared to CIH groups. Scale bar is 2 μm. (B) TUNEL staining for apoptotic neurons in the prefrontal cortex (a–c) and hippocampus (d–f) of each group (original magnification ×400). TUNEL positive neurons were stained in brown and the mean was calculated from five sections. Percentages of neurons apoptosis was shown from rats exposed to RA or CIH and treated with PCA (g). The result is reported as means ± SD, **** denotes P < 0.001 when compared to RA group and ### denotes p < 0.001 when compared to CIH group. n = 3.
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f2: (A) Ultrastructural changes by transmission electron microscopy. No abnormal ultrastructural changes were found in the neurons of the prefrontal cortex (a,b) and hippocampus (g,h) in RA group. Karyopyknosis, chromatin margination and karyotheca breakage, mitochondria abnormalities including swelling, vacuolation and breakage of the cristae, Golgi body and endoplasmic reticulum swelling in the cortex of the prefrontal lobe (c,d) and hippocampus (I,j) were evident in the CIH treated groups. In PCA treated group, the pathological changes in the neurons of the prefrontal cortex (e,f) and hippocampus (k,l) were improved remarkably compared to CIH groups. Scale bar is 2 μm. (B) TUNEL staining for apoptotic neurons in the prefrontal cortex (a–c) and hippocampus (d–f) of each group (original magnification ×400). TUNEL positive neurons were stained in brown and the mean was calculated from five sections. Percentages of neurons apoptosis was shown from rats exposed to RA or CIH and treated with PCA (g). The result is reported as means ± SD, **** denotes P < 0.001 when compared to RA group and ### denotes p < 0.001 when compared to CIH group. n = 3.

Mentions: To assess the neuronal injury in the relevant brain regions of spatial memory, we evaluated the ultrastructural changes in preprefrontal cortex and hippocampus with electron microscope. There were no obvious abnormal ultrastructure changes in the neurons of the prefrontal cortex (Fig. 2A a,b) and hippocampal (Fig. 2A g,h) in the RA group. However, in the CIH exposed group, there was a series of changes including karyopyknosis, chromatin margination and karyotheca breakage in the prefrontal cortex (Fig. 2A c,d) and the hippocampus (Fig. 2A I,j). We observed mitochondria abnormalities including swelling, vacuolation and breakage of the cristae, Golgi body and endoplasmic reticulum swelling in the prefrontal cortex (Fig. 2A c,d) and the hippocampus (Fig. 2A i,j). In PCA treatment group, the pathological changes were improved remarkably compared to CIH groups (Fig. 2A e,f,k,l).


Protocatechuic acid ameliorates neurocognitive functions impairment induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia.

Yin X, Zhang X, Lv C, Li C, Yu Y, Wang X, Han F - Sci Rep (2015)

(A) Ultrastructural changes by transmission electron microscopy. No abnormal ultrastructural changes were found in the neurons of the prefrontal cortex (a,b) and hippocampus (g,h) in RA group. Karyopyknosis, chromatin margination and karyotheca breakage, mitochondria abnormalities including swelling, vacuolation and breakage of the cristae, Golgi body and endoplasmic reticulum swelling in the cortex of the prefrontal lobe (c,d) and hippocampus (I,j) were evident in the CIH treated groups. In PCA treated group, the pathological changes in the neurons of the prefrontal cortex (e,f) and hippocampus (k,l) were improved remarkably compared to CIH groups. Scale bar is 2 μm. (B) TUNEL staining for apoptotic neurons in the prefrontal cortex (a–c) and hippocampus (d–f) of each group (original magnification ×400). TUNEL positive neurons were stained in brown and the mean was calculated from five sections. Percentages of neurons apoptosis was shown from rats exposed to RA or CIH and treated with PCA (g). The result is reported as means ± SD, **** denotes P < 0.001 when compared to RA group and ### denotes p < 0.001 when compared to CIH group. n = 3.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588513&req=5

f2: (A) Ultrastructural changes by transmission electron microscopy. No abnormal ultrastructural changes were found in the neurons of the prefrontal cortex (a,b) and hippocampus (g,h) in RA group. Karyopyknosis, chromatin margination and karyotheca breakage, mitochondria abnormalities including swelling, vacuolation and breakage of the cristae, Golgi body and endoplasmic reticulum swelling in the cortex of the prefrontal lobe (c,d) and hippocampus (I,j) were evident in the CIH treated groups. In PCA treated group, the pathological changes in the neurons of the prefrontal cortex (e,f) and hippocampus (k,l) were improved remarkably compared to CIH groups. Scale bar is 2 μm. (B) TUNEL staining for apoptotic neurons in the prefrontal cortex (a–c) and hippocampus (d–f) of each group (original magnification ×400). TUNEL positive neurons were stained in brown and the mean was calculated from five sections. Percentages of neurons apoptosis was shown from rats exposed to RA or CIH and treated with PCA (g). The result is reported as means ± SD, **** denotes P < 0.001 when compared to RA group and ### denotes p < 0.001 when compared to CIH group. n = 3.
Mentions: To assess the neuronal injury in the relevant brain regions of spatial memory, we evaluated the ultrastructural changes in preprefrontal cortex and hippocampus with electron microscope. There were no obvious abnormal ultrastructure changes in the neurons of the prefrontal cortex (Fig. 2A a,b) and hippocampal (Fig. 2A g,h) in the RA group. However, in the CIH exposed group, there was a series of changes including karyopyknosis, chromatin margination and karyotheca breakage in the prefrontal cortex (Fig. 2A c,d) and the hippocampus (Fig. 2A I,j). We observed mitochondria abnormalities including swelling, vacuolation and breakage of the cristae, Golgi body and endoplasmic reticulum swelling in the prefrontal cortex (Fig. 2A c,d) and the hippocampus (Fig. 2A i,j). In PCA treatment group, the pathological changes were improved remarkably compared to CIH groups (Fig. 2A e,f,k,l).

Bottom Line: The effects of PCA on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and brain IL-1β levels were investigated.In addition, PCA administration also decreased the level of IL-1β in brain and increased the expression of BDNF and SYN.We conclude that PCA administration will ameliorate CIH-induced cognitive dysfunctions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong, 264003, China.

ABSTRACT
Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a serious consequence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and has deleterious effects on central neurons and neurocognitive functions. This study examined if protocatechuic acid (PCA) could improve learning and memory functions of rats exposed to CIH conditions and explore potential mechanisms. Neurocognitive functions were evaluated in male SD rats by step-through passive avoidance test and Morris water maze assay following exposure to CIH or room air conditions. Ultrastructure changes were investigated with transmission electron microscopy, and neuron apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL assays. Ultrastructure changes were investigated with transmission electron microscope and neuron apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL assays. The effects of PCA on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and brain IL-1β levels were investigated. Expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Cleaved Caspase-3, c-fos, SYN, BDNF and pro-BDNF were also studied along with JNK, P38 and ERK phosphorylation to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of PCA action. PCA was seen to enhance learning and memory ability, and alleviate oxidative stress, apoptosis and glial proliferation following CIH exposure in rats. In addition, PCA administration also decreased the level of IL-1β in brain and increased the expression of BDNF and SYN. We conclude that PCA administration will ameliorate CIH-induced cognitive dysfunctions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus