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Body image and weight control in South Africans 15 years or older: SANHANES-1.

Mchiza ZJ, Parker WA, Makoae M, Sewpaul R, Kupamupindi T, Labadarios D - BMC Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: Any differences in values were considered to be significantly different if the confidence intervals did not overlap.Body mass index appears to influence body image and weight adjustment in South Africa.South Africans at the extreme ends of the body mass index range have a largely distorted body image and are highly dissatisfied by it.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Population Health, Health Systems and Innovation (PHHSI), Human Sciences Research Council, Private Bag X9182, Cape Town, 8000 12th Floor, Plein Park Building, 69-83 Plein Street, Cape Town, 8001, South Africa. zmchiza@hsrc.ac.za.

ABSTRACT

Background: South African studies have suggested that differences in obesity prevalence between groups may be partly related to differences in body image and body size dissatisfaction. However, there has never been a national study that measured body image and its relationship to weight control in the country. Hence, the main aim of the study was to examine body image in relation to body mass index and weight control in South Africa.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey and a secondary analyses of data were undertaken for 6 411 South Africans (15+ years) participating in the first South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Body image was investigated in relation to weight status and attempts to lose or gain weight. Data were analysed using STATA version 11.0. Descriptive statistics are presented as counts (numbers), percentages, means, standard error of means, and 95 % confidence intervals. Any differences in values were considered to be significantly different if the confidence intervals did not overlap.

Results: Overall, 84.5 % participants had a largely distorted body image and 45.3 % were highly dissatisfied about their body size. Overweight and obese participants under estimated their body size and desired to be thinner. On the other hand, normal- and under-weight participants over estimated their body size and desired to be fatter. Only 12.1 and 10.1 % of participants attempted to lose or gain weight, respectively, mainly by adjusting dietary intake and physical activity.

Discussion: Body mass index appears to influence body image and weight adjustment in South Africa.

Conclusions: South Africans at the extreme ends of the body mass index range have a largely distorted body image and are highly dissatisfied by it. This suggests a need for health education and beneficial weight control strategies to halt the obesity epidemic in the country.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Frequency distribution of body image distortion (BID, a) and body image dissatisfaction (FID, b) index scores for adult South Africans aged 15 years and older, SANHANES 2012 [24]
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Fig1: Frequency distribution of body image distortion (BID, a) and body image dissatisfaction (FID, b) index scores for adult South Africans aged 15 years and older, SANHANES 2012 [24]

Mentions: Overall, the frequency of BID Index scores assumed a normal curve (Fig. 1a) with 49.8 % (N = 3195; BID Index scores = 1 to 48.5) falling on the positive side of the curve, indicating that nearly half the participants underestimated their BMI to a larger degree. Only 1 % (N = 57) of participants correctly estimated their body size since their BID Index scores fell on the zero axis, while 14.5 % (N = 933) of the participants’ data either fell between -1 and 0 or 0 and 1, an indication of close correct estimation of body size. The remaining 34.7 % of the results (N = 2226) were on the negative side of the curve (BID Index = -1 to -22.9), indicating that nearly 35 % of participants overestimated their BMI to a larger degree.Fig. 1


Body image and weight control in South Africans 15 years or older: SANHANES-1.

Mchiza ZJ, Parker WA, Makoae M, Sewpaul R, Kupamupindi T, Labadarios D - BMC Public Health (2015)

Frequency distribution of body image distortion (BID, a) and body image dissatisfaction (FID, b) index scores for adult South Africans aged 15 years and older, SANHANES 2012 [24]
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588465&req=5

Fig1: Frequency distribution of body image distortion (BID, a) and body image dissatisfaction (FID, b) index scores for adult South Africans aged 15 years and older, SANHANES 2012 [24]
Mentions: Overall, the frequency of BID Index scores assumed a normal curve (Fig. 1a) with 49.8 % (N = 3195; BID Index scores = 1 to 48.5) falling on the positive side of the curve, indicating that nearly half the participants underestimated their BMI to a larger degree. Only 1 % (N = 57) of participants correctly estimated their body size since their BID Index scores fell on the zero axis, while 14.5 % (N = 933) of the participants’ data either fell between -1 and 0 or 0 and 1, an indication of close correct estimation of body size. The remaining 34.7 % of the results (N = 2226) were on the negative side of the curve (BID Index = -1 to -22.9), indicating that nearly 35 % of participants overestimated their BMI to a larger degree.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Any differences in values were considered to be significantly different if the confidence intervals did not overlap.Body mass index appears to influence body image and weight adjustment in South Africa.South Africans at the extreme ends of the body mass index range have a largely distorted body image and are highly dissatisfied by it.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Population Health, Health Systems and Innovation (PHHSI), Human Sciences Research Council, Private Bag X9182, Cape Town, 8000 12th Floor, Plein Park Building, 69-83 Plein Street, Cape Town, 8001, South Africa. zmchiza@hsrc.ac.za.

ABSTRACT

Background: South African studies have suggested that differences in obesity prevalence between groups may be partly related to differences in body image and body size dissatisfaction. However, there has never been a national study that measured body image and its relationship to weight control in the country. Hence, the main aim of the study was to examine body image in relation to body mass index and weight control in South Africa.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey and a secondary analyses of data were undertaken for 6 411 South Africans (15+ years) participating in the first South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Body image was investigated in relation to weight status and attempts to lose or gain weight. Data were analysed using STATA version 11.0. Descriptive statistics are presented as counts (numbers), percentages, means, standard error of means, and 95 % confidence intervals. Any differences in values were considered to be significantly different if the confidence intervals did not overlap.

Results: Overall, 84.5 % participants had a largely distorted body image and 45.3 % were highly dissatisfied about their body size. Overweight and obese participants under estimated their body size and desired to be thinner. On the other hand, normal- and under-weight participants over estimated their body size and desired to be fatter. Only 12.1 and 10.1 % of participants attempted to lose or gain weight, respectively, mainly by adjusting dietary intake and physical activity.

Discussion: Body mass index appears to influence body image and weight adjustment in South Africa.

Conclusions: South Africans at the extreme ends of the body mass index range have a largely distorted body image and are highly dissatisfied by it. This suggests a need for health education and beneficial weight control strategies to halt the obesity epidemic in the country.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus