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Combined activation of the energy and cellular-defense pathways may explain the potent anti-senescence activity of methylene blue.

Atamna H, Atamna W, Al-Eyd G, Shanower G, Dhahbi JM - Redox Biol (2015)

Bottom Line: Methylene blue (MB) delays cellular senescence, induces complex-IV, and activates Keap1/Nrf2; however, the molecular link of these effects to MB is unclear.A previous research suggested that the pattern of AMPK activation (i.e., chronic or transient) determines the AMPK effect on cell senescence.Since MB lacked an effect on cell cycle, an MB-dependent change to cell cycle is unlikely to contribute to the anti-senescence activity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Medicine, California University of Science & Medicine, Colton, CA 92324, USA; Department of Basic Sciences, The Commonwealth Medical College (TCMC), Scranton, PA 18509, USA. Electronic address: atamnah@calmedu.org.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The effect of MB on the length of telomeres in IMR90 cells. IMR90 cells were treated with 100 nM MB starting at PDL 27 and ending at PDL 44. The cells were split every week, PDL calculated, cultures were re-seeded (0.5 million/plate), and the remaining cells were collected for DNA extraction as described in Section 2. Genomic DNA was extracted and processed for telomere length analysis as instructed in TeloTAGGG Telomere Length Assay kit. A. Shows Southern blot of terminal restriction fragments (TRF) after digesting the genomic DNA. B. The rate of telomeres erosion. The rate was calculated from the Kb distribution of TRF from three Southern blots similar to the one shown in A. The rate of telomere erosion was about 0.49 kb/week and 0.03 kb/week in control and MB-treated cells respectively (*P<0.02, t-test).
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f0040: The effect of MB on the length of telomeres in IMR90 cells. IMR90 cells were treated with 100 nM MB starting at PDL 27 and ending at PDL 44. The cells were split every week, PDL calculated, cultures were re-seeded (0.5 million/plate), and the remaining cells were collected for DNA extraction as described in Section 2. Genomic DNA was extracted and processed for telomere length analysis as instructed in TeloTAGGG Telomere Length Assay kit. A. Shows Southern blot of terminal restriction fragments (TRF) after digesting the genomic DNA. B. The rate of telomeres erosion. The rate was calculated from the Kb distribution of TRF from three Southern blots similar to the one shown in A. The rate of telomere erosion was about 0.49 kb/week and 0.03 kb/week in control and MB-treated cells respectively (*P<0.02, t-test).

Mentions: The rate of telomeres erosion impacts the rate of cellular senescence in dividing cells. Thus, the rate of telomeres erosion was examined over four weeks of treatment with MB. The initial PDL upon seeding of the control and MB-treated group was 27. As expected, at the end of the four weeks MB-treated cells gained more PDLs than the controls. The gain in the PDL in weeks 1, 2, 3, and 4 in the control group was 4, 3.6, 3.5, and 3.4 PDL while the gain in PDL in the MB-treated group was 4.2, 4.2, 4.3, and 4.3 PDLs, respectively. The telomeres length was visualized with the help of Southern blots similar to the one shown in Fig. 8A, which served to measure the telomeres length in controls and MB-treated cells. The calculations show that MB-treated IMR90 cells have longer telomeres as compared to the controls (Fig. 8A). Telomeres erosion rate was calculated and found to be about 4% per week (0.49 kb/week) in control cells, while the rate in MB-treated cells was 0.5%/week (0.03 kb/week) (Fig. 8B, P<0.02).


Combined activation of the energy and cellular-defense pathways may explain the potent anti-senescence activity of methylene blue.

Atamna H, Atamna W, Al-Eyd G, Shanower G, Dhahbi JM - Redox Biol (2015)

The effect of MB on the length of telomeres in IMR90 cells. IMR90 cells were treated with 100 nM MB starting at PDL 27 and ending at PDL 44. The cells were split every week, PDL calculated, cultures were re-seeded (0.5 million/plate), and the remaining cells were collected for DNA extraction as described in Section 2. Genomic DNA was extracted and processed for telomere length analysis as instructed in TeloTAGGG Telomere Length Assay kit. A. Shows Southern blot of terminal restriction fragments (TRF) after digesting the genomic DNA. B. The rate of telomeres erosion. The rate was calculated from the Kb distribution of TRF from three Southern blots similar to the one shown in A. The rate of telomere erosion was about 0.49 kb/week and 0.03 kb/week in control and MB-treated cells respectively (*P<0.02, t-test).
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588422&req=5

f0040: The effect of MB on the length of telomeres in IMR90 cells. IMR90 cells were treated with 100 nM MB starting at PDL 27 and ending at PDL 44. The cells were split every week, PDL calculated, cultures were re-seeded (0.5 million/plate), and the remaining cells were collected for DNA extraction as described in Section 2. Genomic DNA was extracted and processed for telomere length analysis as instructed in TeloTAGGG Telomere Length Assay kit. A. Shows Southern blot of terminal restriction fragments (TRF) after digesting the genomic DNA. B. The rate of telomeres erosion. The rate was calculated from the Kb distribution of TRF from three Southern blots similar to the one shown in A. The rate of telomere erosion was about 0.49 kb/week and 0.03 kb/week in control and MB-treated cells respectively (*P<0.02, t-test).
Mentions: The rate of telomeres erosion impacts the rate of cellular senescence in dividing cells. Thus, the rate of telomeres erosion was examined over four weeks of treatment with MB. The initial PDL upon seeding of the control and MB-treated group was 27. As expected, at the end of the four weeks MB-treated cells gained more PDLs than the controls. The gain in the PDL in weeks 1, 2, 3, and 4 in the control group was 4, 3.6, 3.5, and 3.4 PDL while the gain in PDL in the MB-treated group was 4.2, 4.2, 4.3, and 4.3 PDLs, respectively. The telomeres length was visualized with the help of Southern blots similar to the one shown in Fig. 8A, which served to measure the telomeres length in controls and MB-treated cells. The calculations show that MB-treated IMR90 cells have longer telomeres as compared to the controls (Fig. 8A). Telomeres erosion rate was calculated and found to be about 4% per week (0.49 kb/week) in control cells, while the rate in MB-treated cells was 0.5%/week (0.03 kb/week) (Fig. 8B, P<0.02).

Bottom Line: Methylene blue (MB) delays cellular senescence, induces complex-IV, and activates Keap1/Nrf2; however, the molecular link of these effects to MB is unclear.A previous research suggested that the pattern of AMPK activation (i.e., chronic or transient) determines the AMPK effect on cell senescence.Since MB lacked an effect on cell cycle, an MB-dependent change to cell cycle is unlikely to contribute to the anti-senescence activity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Medicine, California University of Science & Medicine, Colton, CA 92324, USA; Department of Basic Sciences, The Commonwealth Medical College (TCMC), Scranton, PA 18509, USA. Electronic address: atamnah@calmedu.org.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus