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Neural mechanisms of response inhibition and impulsivity in 22q11.2 deletion carriers and idiopathic attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Montojo CA, Congdon E, Hwang L, Jalbrzikowski M, Kushan L, Vesagas TK, Jonas RK, Ventura J, Bilder RM, Bearden CE - Neuroimage Clin (2015)

Bottom Line: •22q11DS offers a compelling model to understand the neural substrates of attentional dysfunction.•First study directly comparing neural function in 22q11DS vs.ADHD patients•22q11DS and ADHD patients show a shared deficit in RI-related activation.•ADHD patients showed greater activity in the middle frontal gyrus than 22q11DS during RI.•Neural activity is inversely correlated with self-reported Cognitive Impulsivity in 22q11DS.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of California Los Angeles, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, 760 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA.

ABSTRACT
•22q11DS offers a compelling model to understand the neural substrates of attentional dysfunction.•First study directly comparing neural function in 22q11DS vs. ADHD patients•22q11DS and ADHD patients show a shared deficit in RI-related activation.•ADHD patients showed greater activity in the middle frontal gyrus than 22q11DS during RI.•Neural activity is inversely correlated with self-reported Cognitive Impulsivity in 22q11DS.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Relationship between RI-related neural activity and trait impulsivity in 22q11DS and ADHD patients. Activity maps display regions that showed a significant relationship between Stop Successful–Go activity and trait impulsivity values, using the following color scheme: turquoise = ADHD > 22q11DS, yellow = 22q11DS alone, and magenta = 22q11DS > ADHD. No regions showed a significant correlation within ADHD alone. Brain orientations are labeled such that S = superior, I = inferior, P = posterior, and A = anterior; R = right and L = left. The X-axis values represent the (a) Cognitive Impulsivity subscore or (b) Behavioral Impulsivity subscore of the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and the Y-axis values represent the percent signal change during Stop Successful–Go (with age and years of education included in the analysis as covariates of non-interest). Higher scores on cognitive or Behavioral Impulsivity scales indicate higher levels of trait impulsivity. ADHD patient data are shown as open circles, 22q11DS patient data are shown as black squares, the ADHD trend line is shown as a dashed line, and the 22q11DS trend line is shown as a solid line.
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f0020: Relationship between RI-related neural activity and trait impulsivity in 22q11DS and ADHD patients. Activity maps display regions that showed a significant relationship between Stop Successful–Go activity and trait impulsivity values, using the following color scheme: turquoise = ADHD > 22q11DS, yellow = 22q11DS alone, and magenta = 22q11DS > ADHD. No regions showed a significant correlation within ADHD alone. Brain orientations are labeled such that S = superior, I = inferior, P = posterior, and A = anterior; R = right and L = left. The X-axis values represent the (a) Cognitive Impulsivity subscore or (b) Behavioral Impulsivity subscore of the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and the Y-axis values represent the percent signal change during Stop Successful–Go (with age and years of education included in the analysis as covariates of non-interest). Higher scores on cognitive or Behavioral Impulsivity scales indicate higher levels of trait impulsivity. ADHD patient data are shown as open circles, 22q11DS patient data are shown as black squares, the ADHD trend line is shown as a dashed line, and the 22q11DS trend line is shown as a solid line.

Mentions: To further explore differences in RI-related activation between clinical groups, we examined the relationship between RI-related activation and trait impulsivity as a function of group status (22q11DS vs. ADHD). As illustrated in Fig. 4a and detailed in Table 4, a significant interaction was observed between group and Cognitive Impulsivity, such that 22q11DS patients showed an inverse correlation between activity in the medial frontal cortex and precuneus with Cognitive Impulsivity, while ADHD patients showed a positive correlation in these same regions. Follow-up regressions within 22q11DS patients alone confirmed a negative association between Cognitive Impulsivity and RI-related activation in the medial frontal gyrus, precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, and inferior parietal cortex (Table 4). No regions were positively associated with Cognitive Impulsivity in the 22q11DS patients, and no significant correlation with Cognitive Impulsivity was evident in the ADHD group alone after correction for multiple comparisons.


Neural mechanisms of response inhibition and impulsivity in 22q11.2 deletion carriers and idiopathic attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Montojo CA, Congdon E, Hwang L, Jalbrzikowski M, Kushan L, Vesagas TK, Jonas RK, Ventura J, Bilder RM, Bearden CE - Neuroimage Clin (2015)

Relationship between RI-related neural activity and trait impulsivity in 22q11DS and ADHD patients. Activity maps display regions that showed a significant relationship between Stop Successful–Go activity and trait impulsivity values, using the following color scheme: turquoise = ADHD > 22q11DS, yellow = 22q11DS alone, and magenta = 22q11DS > ADHD. No regions showed a significant correlation within ADHD alone. Brain orientations are labeled such that S = superior, I = inferior, P = posterior, and A = anterior; R = right and L = left. The X-axis values represent the (a) Cognitive Impulsivity subscore or (b) Behavioral Impulsivity subscore of the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and the Y-axis values represent the percent signal change during Stop Successful–Go (with age and years of education included in the analysis as covariates of non-interest). Higher scores on cognitive or Behavioral Impulsivity scales indicate higher levels of trait impulsivity. ADHD patient data are shown as open circles, 22q11DS patient data are shown as black squares, the ADHD trend line is shown as a dashed line, and the 22q11DS trend line is shown as a solid line.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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f0020: Relationship between RI-related neural activity and trait impulsivity in 22q11DS and ADHD patients. Activity maps display regions that showed a significant relationship between Stop Successful–Go activity and trait impulsivity values, using the following color scheme: turquoise = ADHD > 22q11DS, yellow = 22q11DS alone, and magenta = 22q11DS > ADHD. No regions showed a significant correlation within ADHD alone. Brain orientations are labeled such that S = superior, I = inferior, P = posterior, and A = anterior; R = right and L = left. The X-axis values represent the (a) Cognitive Impulsivity subscore or (b) Behavioral Impulsivity subscore of the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and the Y-axis values represent the percent signal change during Stop Successful–Go (with age and years of education included in the analysis as covariates of non-interest). Higher scores on cognitive or Behavioral Impulsivity scales indicate higher levels of trait impulsivity. ADHD patient data are shown as open circles, 22q11DS patient data are shown as black squares, the ADHD trend line is shown as a dashed line, and the 22q11DS trend line is shown as a solid line.
Mentions: To further explore differences in RI-related activation between clinical groups, we examined the relationship between RI-related activation and trait impulsivity as a function of group status (22q11DS vs. ADHD). As illustrated in Fig. 4a and detailed in Table 4, a significant interaction was observed between group and Cognitive Impulsivity, such that 22q11DS patients showed an inverse correlation between activity in the medial frontal cortex and precuneus with Cognitive Impulsivity, while ADHD patients showed a positive correlation in these same regions. Follow-up regressions within 22q11DS patients alone confirmed a negative association between Cognitive Impulsivity and RI-related activation in the medial frontal gyrus, precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, and inferior parietal cortex (Table 4). No regions were positively associated with Cognitive Impulsivity in the 22q11DS patients, and no significant correlation with Cognitive Impulsivity was evident in the ADHD group alone after correction for multiple comparisons.

Bottom Line: •22q11DS offers a compelling model to understand the neural substrates of attentional dysfunction.•First study directly comparing neural function in 22q11DS vs.ADHD patients•22q11DS and ADHD patients show a shared deficit in RI-related activation.•ADHD patients showed greater activity in the middle frontal gyrus than 22q11DS during RI.•Neural activity is inversely correlated with self-reported Cognitive Impulsivity in 22q11DS.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of California Los Angeles, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, 760 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA.

ABSTRACT
•22q11DS offers a compelling model to understand the neural substrates of attentional dysfunction.•First study directly comparing neural function in 22q11DS vs. ADHD patients•22q11DS and ADHD patients show a shared deficit in RI-related activation.•ADHD patients showed greater activity in the middle frontal gyrus than 22q11DS during RI.•Neural activity is inversely correlated with self-reported Cognitive Impulsivity in 22q11DS.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus