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Natural infection of Plasmodium brasilianum in humans: Man and monkey share quartan malaria parasites in the Venezuelan Amazon.

Lalremruata A, Magris M, Vivas-Martínez S, Koehler M, Esen M, Kempaiah P, Jeyaraj S, Perkins DJ, Mordmüller B, Metzger WG - EBioMedicine (2015)

Bottom Line: However, no naturally acquired infection with parasites termed as P. brasilianum has been found in humans until now.We hypothesize a lack of host specificity in mammalian hosts and consider quartan malaria to be a true anthropozoonosis.The expansive reservoir of mammalian hosts discriminates quartan malaria from other Plasmodium spp. and requires particular research efforts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Tropical Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Background: The quartan malaria parasite Plasmodium malariae is the widest spread and best adapted human malaria parasite. The simian Plasmodium brasilianum causes quartan fever in New World monkeys and resembles P. malariae morphologically. Since the genetics of the two parasites are nearly identical, differing only in a range of mutations expected within a species, it has long been speculated that the two are the same. However, no naturally acquired infection with parasites termed as P. brasilianum has been found in humans until now.

Methods: We investigated malaria cases from remote Yanomami indigenous communities of the Venezuelan Amazon and analyzed the genes coding for the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and the small subunit of ribosomes (18S) by species-specific PCR and capillary based-DNA sequencing.

Findings: Based on 18S rRNA gene sequencing, we identified 12 patients harboring malaria parasites which were 100% identical with P. brasilianum isolated from the monkey, Alouatta seniculus. Translated amino acid sequences of the CS protein gene showed identical immunodominant repeat units between quartan malaria parasites isolated from both humans and monkeys.

Interpretation: This study reports, for the first time, naturally acquired infections in humans with parasites termed as P. brasilianum. We conclude that quartan malaria parasites are easily exchanged between humans and monkeys in Latin America. We hypothesize a lack of host specificity in mammalian hosts and consider quartan malaria to be a true anthropozoonosis. Since the name P. brasilianum suggests a malaria species distinct from P. malariae, we propose that P. brasilianum should have a nomenclatorial revision in case further research confirms our findings. The expansive reservoir of mammalian hosts discriminates quartan malaria from other Plasmodium spp. and requires particular research efforts.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Neighbor Joining Tree based on 18S gene sequences of Plasmodium species. The tree shows that all quartan malaria parasites from humans and monkeys cluster into a monophyletic clade supported by a high bootstrap value of 99%. P. brasilianum and P. malariae sequences from this study are shown in color (red and blue). Hosts (non-human primate, human) are indicated by graphic symbols beside the taxa names. The sequence highlighted in red was found by Fandeur et al. in Alouatta monkeys, and in this study in humans. The two additional P. malariae isolates from human infections from Bangladesh (GenBank Ac. KF906514 & GenBank Ac. KF906514); Fuehrer et al. showed that these two isolates were 100% identical with a P. malariae-like isolate from the Chimpanzee Takaboh (GenBank Ac. AB489195).
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f0005: Neighbor Joining Tree based on 18S gene sequences of Plasmodium species. The tree shows that all quartan malaria parasites from humans and monkeys cluster into a monophyletic clade supported by a high bootstrap value of 99%. P. brasilianum and P. malariae sequences from this study are shown in color (red and blue). Hosts (non-human primate, human) are indicated by graphic symbols beside the taxa names. The sequence highlighted in red was found by Fandeur et al. in Alouatta monkeys, and in this study in humans. The two additional P. malariae isolates from human infections from Bangladesh (GenBank Ac. KF906514 & GenBank Ac. KF906514); Fuehrer et al. showed that these two isolates were 100% identical with a P. malariae-like isolate from the Chimpanzee Takaboh (GenBank Ac. AB489195).

Mentions: The phylogenetic analysis by the Neighbor joining method confirmed the similarity of all quartan malaria parasites (irrespective of the source of isolation, P. brasilianum or P. malariae) by clustering into a single monophyletic clade with a high bootstrap support of 100% (Fig. 1).


Natural infection of Plasmodium brasilianum in humans: Man and monkey share quartan malaria parasites in the Venezuelan Amazon.

Lalremruata A, Magris M, Vivas-Martínez S, Koehler M, Esen M, Kempaiah P, Jeyaraj S, Perkins DJ, Mordmüller B, Metzger WG - EBioMedicine (2015)

Neighbor Joining Tree based on 18S gene sequences of Plasmodium species. The tree shows that all quartan malaria parasites from humans and monkeys cluster into a monophyletic clade supported by a high bootstrap value of 99%. P. brasilianum and P. malariae sequences from this study are shown in color (red and blue). Hosts (non-human primate, human) are indicated by graphic symbols beside the taxa names. The sequence highlighted in red was found by Fandeur et al. in Alouatta monkeys, and in this study in humans. The two additional P. malariae isolates from human infections from Bangladesh (GenBank Ac. KF906514 & GenBank Ac. KF906514); Fuehrer et al. showed that these two isolates were 100% identical with a P. malariae-like isolate from the Chimpanzee Takaboh (GenBank Ac. AB489195).
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4588399&req=5

f0005: Neighbor Joining Tree based on 18S gene sequences of Plasmodium species. The tree shows that all quartan malaria parasites from humans and monkeys cluster into a monophyletic clade supported by a high bootstrap value of 99%. P. brasilianum and P. malariae sequences from this study are shown in color (red and blue). Hosts (non-human primate, human) are indicated by graphic symbols beside the taxa names. The sequence highlighted in red was found by Fandeur et al. in Alouatta monkeys, and in this study in humans. The two additional P. malariae isolates from human infections from Bangladesh (GenBank Ac. KF906514 & GenBank Ac. KF906514); Fuehrer et al. showed that these two isolates were 100% identical with a P. malariae-like isolate from the Chimpanzee Takaboh (GenBank Ac. AB489195).
Mentions: The phylogenetic analysis by the Neighbor joining method confirmed the similarity of all quartan malaria parasites (irrespective of the source of isolation, P. brasilianum or P. malariae) by clustering into a single monophyletic clade with a high bootstrap support of 100% (Fig. 1).

Bottom Line: However, no naturally acquired infection with parasites termed as P. brasilianum has been found in humans until now.We hypothesize a lack of host specificity in mammalian hosts and consider quartan malaria to be a true anthropozoonosis.The expansive reservoir of mammalian hosts discriminates quartan malaria from other Plasmodium spp. and requires particular research efforts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Tropical Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Background: The quartan malaria parasite Plasmodium malariae is the widest spread and best adapted human malaria parasite. The simian Plasmodium brasilianum causes quartan fever in New World monkeys and resembles P. malariae morphologically. Since the genetics of the two parasites are nearly identical, differing only in a range of mutations expected within a species, it has long been speculated that the two are the same. However, no naturally acquired infection with parasites termed as P. brasilianum has been found in humans until now.

Methods: We investigated malaria cases from remote Yanomami indigenous communities of the Venezuelan Amazon and analyzed the genes coding for the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and the small subunit of ribosomes (18S) by species-specific PCR and capillary based-DNA sequencing.

Findings: Based on 18S rRNA gene sequencing, we identified 12 patients harboring malaria parasites which were 100% identical with P. brasilianum isolated from the monkey, Alouatta seniculus. Translated amino acid sequences of the CS protein gene showed identical immunodominant repeat units between quartan malaria parasites isolated from both humans and monkeys.

Interpretation: This study reports, for the first time, naturally acquired infections in humans with parasites termed as P. brasilianum. We conclude that quartan malaria parasites are easily exchanged between humans and monkeys in Latin America. We hypothesize a lack of host specificity in mammalian hosts and consider quartan malaria to be a true anthropozoonosis. Since the name P. brasilianum suggests a malaria species distinct from P. malariae, we propose that P. brasilianum should have a nomenclatorial revision in case further research confirms our findings. The expansive reservoir of mammalian hosts discriminates quartan malaria from other Plasmodium spp. and requires particular research efforts.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus