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Monte Carlo Dosimetry of the 60Co BEBIG High Dose Rate for Brachytherapy.

Campos LT, de Almeida CE - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: One of main advantages of 60Co compared to 192Ir is the economic and practical benefit because of its longer half-live, which is 5.27 years.Variance reduction techniques were used to speed up the calculation and to considerably reduce the computer time.The radial dose functions were compared with the values of the consensus data set in the literature, and they are consistent with the published data for this energy range.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratório de Ciências Radiológicas (LCR/DBB/ UERJ), Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524 Maracanã, CEP: 205550, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The use of high-dose-rate brachytherapy is currently a widespread practice worldwide. The most common isotope source is 192Ir, but 60Co is also becoming available for HDR. One of main advantages of 60Co compared to 192Ir is the economic and practical benefit because of its longer half-live, which is 5.27 years. Recently, Eckert & Ziegler BEBIG, Germany, introduced a new afterloading brachytherapy machine (MultiSource®); it has the option to use either the 60Co or 192Ir HDR source. The source for the Monte Carlo calculations is the new 60Co source (model Co0.A86), which is referred to as the new BEBIG 60Co HDR source and is a modified version of the 60Co source (model GK60M21), which is also from BEBIG.

Objective and methods: The purpose of this work is to obtain the dosimetry parameters in accordance with the AAPM TG-43U1 formalism with Monte Carlo calculations regarding the BEBIG 60Co high-dose-rate brachytherapy to investigate the required treatment-planning parameters. The geometric design and material details of the source was provided by the manufacturer and was used to define the Monte Carlo geometry. To validate the source geometry, a few dosimetry parameters had to be calculated according to the AAPM TG-43U1 formalism. The dosimetry studies included the calculation of the air kerma strength Sk, collision kerma in water along the transverse axis with an unbounded phantom, dose rate constant and radial dose function. The Monte Carlo code system that was used was EGSnrc with a new cavity code, which is a part of EGS++ that allows calculating the radial dose function around the source. The spectrum to simulate 60Co was composed of two photon energies, 1.17 and 1.33 MeV. Only the gamma part of the spectrum was used; the contribution of the electrons to the dose is negligible because of the full absorption by the stainless-steel wall around the metallic 60Co. The XCOM photon cross-section library was used in subsequent simulations, and the photoelectric effect, pair production, Rayleigh scattering and bound Compton scattering were included in the simulation. Variance reduction techniques were used to speed up the calculation and to considerably reduce the computer time. The cut-off energy was 10 keV for electrons and photons. To obtain the dose rate distributions of the source in an unbounded liquid water phantom, the source was immersed at the center of a cube phantom of 100 cm3. The liquid water density was 0.998 g/cm3, and photon histories of up to 1010 were used to obtain the results with a standard deviation of less than 0.5% (k = 1). The obtained dose rate constant for the BEBIG 60Co source was 1.108±0.001 cGyh-1U-1, which is consistent with the values in the literature. The radial dose functions were compared with the values of the consensus data set in the literature, and they are consistent with the published data for this energy range.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Simulation geometry of the BEBIG 60Co source.The figure was obtained using the egs-_view in the egs++ code.
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pone.0139032.g002: Simulation geometry of the BEBIG 60Co source.The figure was obtained using the egs-_view in the egs++ code.

Mentions: The source is composed of a central cylindrical active core, which is made of metallic 60Co, 3.5 mm long and 0.5 mm in diameter. The active core is covered by a 0.15 mm thick cylindrical stainless-steel capsule with an external diameter of 1 mm [8], and its simulated geometry on EGSnrc is shown in Fig 2.


Monte Carlo Dosimetry of the 60Co BEBIG High Dose Rate for Brachytherapy.

Campos LT, de Almeida CE - PLoS ONE (2015)

Simulation geometry of the BEBIG 60Co source.The figure was obtained using the egs-_view in the egs++ code.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4587958&req=5

pone.0139032.g002: Simulation geometry of the BEBIG 60Co source.The figure was obtained using the egs-_view in the egs++ code.
Mentions: The source is composed of a central cylindrical active core, which is made of metallic 60Co, 3.5 mm long and 0.5 mm in diameter. The active core is covered by a 0.15 mm thick cylindrical stainless-steel capsule with an external diameter of 1 mm [8], and its simulated geometry on EGSnrc is shown in Fig 2.

Bottom Line: One of main advantages of 60Co compared to 192Ir is the economic and practical benefit because of its longer half-live, which is 5.27 years.Variance reduction techniques were used to speed up the calculation and to considerably reduce the computer time.The radial dose functions were compared with the values of the consensus data set in the literature, and they are consistent with the published data for this energy range.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratório de Ciências Radiológicas (LCR/DBB/ UERJ), Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524 Maracanã, CEP: 205550, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The use of high-dose-rate brachytherapy is currently a widespread practice worldwide. The most common isotope source is 192Ir, but 60Co is also becoming available for HDR. One of main advantages of 60Co compared to 192Ir is the economic and practical benefit because of its longer half-live, which is 5.27 years. Recently, Eckert & Ziegler BEBIG, Germany, introduced a new afterloading brachytherapy machine (MultiSource®); it has the option to use either the 60Co or 192Ir HDR source. The source for the Monte Carlo calculations is the new 60Co source (model Co0.A86), which is referred to as the new BEBIG 60Co HDR source and is a modified version of the 60Co source (model GK60M21), which is also from BEBIG.

Objective and methods: The purpose of this work is to obtain the dosimetry parameters in accordance with the AAPM TG-43U1 formalism with Monte Carlo calculations regarding the BEBIG 60Co high-dose-rate brachytherapy to investigate the required treatment-planning parameters. The geometric design and material details of the source was provided by the manufacturer and was used to define the Monte Carlo geometry. To validate the source geometry, a few dosimetry parameters had to be calculated according to the AAPM TG-43U1 formalism. The dosimetry studies included the calculation of the air kerma strength Sk, collision kerma in water along the transverse axis with an unbounded phantom, dose rate constant and radial dose function. The Monte Carlo code system that was used was EGSnrc with a new cavity code, which is a part of EGS++ that allows calculating the radial dose function around the source. The spectrum to simulate 60Co was composed of two photon energies, 1.17 and 1.33 MeV. Only the gamma part of the spectrum was used; the contribution of the electrons to the dose is negligible because of the full absorption by the stainless-steel wall around the metallic 60Co. The XCOM photon cross-section library was used in subsequent simulations, and the photoelectric effect, pair production, Rayleigh scattering and bound Compton scattering were included in the simulation. Variance reduction techniques were used to speed up the calculation and to considerably reduce the computer time. The cut-off energy was 10 keV for electrons and photons. To obtain the dose rate distributions of the source in an unbounded liquid water phantom, the source was immersed at the center of a cube phantom of 100 cm3. The liquid water density was 0.998 g/cm3, and photon histories of up to 1010 were used to obtain the results with a standard deviation of less than 0.5% (k = 1). The obtained dose rate constant for the BEBIG 60Co source was 1.108±0.001 cGyh-1U-1, which is consistent with the values in the literature. The radial dose functions were compared with the values of the consensus data set in the literature, and they are consistent with the published data for this energy range.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus