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Multi-Etiological Nature of Tuberculosis-Like Lesions in Condemned Pigs at the Slaughterhouse.

Cardoso-Toset F, Gómez-Laguna J, Amarilla SP, Vela AI, Carrasco L, Fernández-Garayzábal JF, Astorga RJ, Luque I - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Pyogranulomatous (56.2%) and granulomatous lesions (20.2%) were observed in all analysed organs.Different microorganisms were simultaneously detected from TBL in the 42.7% of the animals.These results may provide new insights into the pathogenesis and diagnosis of this pathology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 'International Excellence Agrifood Campus, CeiA3', Córdoba, Spain; Department of R&D, CICAP - Food Research Centre, Pozoblanco, Córdoba, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Tuberculosis-like lesions (TBL) in pigs have been associated with microorganisms other than mycobacteria. In this work a histopathological and microbiological evaluation of TBL in pigs is shown. A total of 352 samples belonging to 171 pigs totally condemned at slaughterhouse due to generalized TBL were sampled and selected for analysis. Pyogranulomatous (56.2%) and granulomatous lesions (20.2%) were observed in all analysed organs. Most of the granulomas observed in both lymph nodes and lungs belonged to more advanced stages of development (stages III and IV) whereas in the liver and the spleen most of lesions belonged to intermediate stages (stages II and III). Different microorganisms were simultaneously detected from TBL in the 42.7% of the animals. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) (38%), coryneform bacteria (40.3%) and streptococci (28.1%) were the main groups of microorganisms detected after bacteriological analysis, with Trueperella pyogenes and Streptococcus suis as the most frequently isolated species. Mycobacteria belonging to MTC were the most frequently detected pathogens in granulomatous and pyogranulomatous lesions in submandibular lymph nodes (32.7%) and coryneform bacteria were the microorganisms more frequently isolated from lungs (25.9%) and spleen samples (37.2%). These results may provide new insights into the pathogenesis and diagnosis of this pathology. The importance of coryneform bacteria and streptococci in such processes must be evaluated in future studies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A-G.A) TBL in the submandibular lymph node of an affected pig. Bar, 1cm. B) TBL in the spleen of an affected pig. Bar, 1cm. C) Microscopic image of a TBL lesions in the lymph node of an affected animal showing a profuse infiltrate of degenerated neutrophils. HE. Bar, 200μm. D) Clustered epithelioid macrophages surrounded by lymphocytes and erythrocytes in a stage I granuloma in the liver. HE. Bar, 50μm. E) Coalescent stage II granulomas in the lymph node of a pig showing epithelioid macrophages completely enclosed by a thin capsule, with peripheral infiltration of scattered lymphocytes. HE. Bar, 100μm. F) Stage III granuloma with a central necrotic core, partially mineralized, surrounded by a dense connective tissue capsule infiltrated by lymphocytes and scattered neutrophils. HE. Bar, 100μm. G) Thickly encapsulated, large, irregular, multicentric granulomas with prominent caseous necrosis and multifocal islands of mineralization (stage IV granulomas). HE. Bar, 500μm.
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pone.0139130.g001: A-G.A) TBL in the submandibular lymph node of an affected pig. Bar, 1cm. B) TBL in the spleen of an affected pig. Bar, 1cm. C) Microscopic image of a TBL lesions in the lymph node of an affected animal showing a profuse infiltrate of degenerated neutrophils. HE. Bar, 200μm. D) Clustered epithelioid macrophages surrounded by lymphocytes and erythrocytes in a stage I granuloma in the liver. HE. Bar, 50μm. E) Coalescent stage II granulomas in the lymph node of a pig showing epithelioid macrophages completely enclosed by a thin capsule, with peripheral infiltration of scattered lymphocytes. HE. Bar, 100μm. F) Stage III granuloma with a central necrotic core, partially mineralized, surrounded by a dense connective tissue capsule infiltrated by lymphocytes and scattered neutrophils. HE. Bar, 100μm. G) Thickly encapsulated, large, irregular, multicentric granulomas with prominent caseous necrosis and multifocal islands of mineralization (stage IV granulomas). HE. Bar, 500μm.

Mentions: A total of 171 pigs where the carcasses were totally condemned due to the identification of generalized disease according to the European regulation for meat inspection (Regulation 2004/854/EC) were sampled at two different slaughterhouses between January 2011 and June 2014. All animals passed antemortem clinical inspection were apparently healthy free-range pigs over 14 month-old raised in extensive systems from 56 farms located in South West Iberian Peninsula (Andalusia and Extremadura regions in Spain). After meat inspection procedures selected organs affected by TBL were sampled according to previous reports [2,3] including submandibular lymph nodes, lungs, liver and spleen to evaluate disseminated lesions [3,4,9] (Fig 1A and 1B). From these animals, a total of 352 samples were removed at the slaughterhouse and transported to the laboratory for analysis. To avoid cross contamination, different sets of sterile instruments and vials were used to collect and transport samples from each animal. Whenever possible, one well-defined lesion was selected in each organ which was divided into two portions: one portion was subjected to histopathological analysis and the other was immediately submitted to bacterial culture and frozen at -20°C to perform qPCR assays [12]. However, when small-sized disseminated lesions were observed, lesions that were similar in appearance and concentrated in one locality were selected and submitted to each analysis.


Multi-Etiological Nature of Tuberculosis-Like Lesions in Condemned Pigs at the Slaughterhouse.

Cardoso-Toset F, Gómez-Laguna J, Amarilla SP, Vela AI, Carrasco L, Fernández-Garayzábal JF, Astorga RJ, Luque I - PLoS ONE (2015)

A-G.A) TBL in the submandibular lymph node of an affected pig. Bar, 1cm. B) TBL in the spleen of an affected pig. Bar, 1cm. C) Microscopic image of a TBL lesions in the lymph node of an affected animal showing a profuse infiltrate of degenerated neutrophils. HE. Bar, 200μm. D) Clustered epithelioid macrophages surrounded by lymphocytes and erythrocytes in a stage I granuloma in the liver. HE. Bar, 50μm. E) Coalescent stage II granulomas in the lymph node of a pig showing epithelioid macrophages completely enclosed by a thin capsule, with peripheral infiltration of scattered lymphocytes. HE. Bar, 100μm. F) Stage III granuloma with a central necrotic core, partially mineralized, surrounded by a dense connective tissue capsule infiltrated by lymphocytes and scattered neutrophils. HE. Bar, 100μm. G) Thickly encapsulated, large, irregular, multicentric granulomas with prominent caseous necrosis and multifocal islands of mineralization (stage IV granulomas). HE. Bar, 500μm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4587938&req=5

pone.0139130.g001: A-G.A) TBL in the submandibular lymph node of an affected pig. Bar, 1cm. B) TBL in the spleen of an affected pig. Bar, 1cm. C) Microscopic image of a TBL lesions in the lymph node of an affected animal showing a profuse infiltrate of degenerated neutrophils. HE. Bar, 200μm. D) Clustered epithelioid macrophages surrounded by lymphocytes and erythrocytes in a stage I granuloma in the liver. HE. Bar, 50μm. E) Coalescent stage II granulomas in the lymph node of a pig showing epithelioid macrophages completely enclosed by a thin capsule, with peripheral infiltration of scattered lymphocytes. HE. Bar, 100μm. F) Stage III granuloma with a central necrotic core, partially mineralized, surrounded by a dense connective tissue capsule infiltrated by lymphocytes and scattered neutrophils. HE. Bar, 100μm. G) Thickly encapsulated, large, irregular, multicentric granulomas with prominent caseous necrosis and multifocal islands of mineralization (stage IV granulomas). HE. Bar, 500μm.
Mentions: A total of 171 pigs where the carcasses were totally condemned due to the identification of generalized disease according to the European regulation for meat inspection (Regulation 2004/854/EC) were sampled at two different slaughterhouses between January 2011 and June 2014. All animals passed antemortem clinical inspection were apparently healthy free-range pigs over 14 month-old raised in extensive systems from 56 farms located in South West Iberian Peninsula (Andalusia and Extremadura regions in Spain). After meat inspection procedures selected organs affected by TBL were sampled according to previous reports [2,3] including submandibular lymph nodes, lungs, liver and spleen to evaluate disseminated lesions [3,4,9] (Fig 1A and 1B). From these animals, a total of 352 samples were removed at the slaughterhouse and transported to the laboratory for analysis. To avoid cross contamination, different sets of sterile instruments and vials were used to collect and transport samples from each animal. Whenever possible, one well-defined lesion was selected in each organ which was divided into two portions: one portion was subjected to histopathological analysis and the other was immediately submitted to bacterial culture and frozen at -20°C to perform qPCR assays [12]. However, when small-sized disseminated lesions were observed, lesions that were similar in appearance and concentrated in one locality were selected and submitted to each analysis.

Bottom Line: Pyogranulomatous (56.2%) and granulomatous lesions (20.2%) were observed in all analysed organs.Different microorganisms were simultaneously detected from TBL in the 42.7% of the animals.These results may provide new insights into the pathogenesis and diagnosis of this pathology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 'International Excellence Agrifood Campus, CeiA3', Córdoba, Spain; Department of R&D, CICAP - Food Research Centre, Pozoblanco, Córdoba, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Tuberculosis-like lesions (TBL) in pigs have been associated with microorganisms other than mycobacteria. In this work a histopathological and microbiological evaluation of TBL in pigs is shown. A total of 352 samples belonging to 171 pigs totally condemned at slaughterhouse due to generalized TBL were sampled and selected for analysis. Pyogranulomatous (56.2%) and granulomatous lesions (20.2%) were observed in all analysed organs. Most of the granulomas observed in both lymph nodes and lungs belonged to more advanced stages of development (stages III and IV) whereas in the liver and the spleen most of lesions belonged to intermediate stages (stages II and III). Different microorganisms were simultaneously detected from TBL in the 42.7% of the animals. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) (38%), coryneform bacteria (40.3%) and streptococci (28.1%) were the main groups of microorganisms detected after bacteriological analysis, with Trueperella pyogenes and Streptococcus suis as the most frequently isolated species. Mycobacteria belonging to MTC were the most frequently detected pathogens in granulomatous and pyogranulomatous lesions in submandibular lymph nodes (32.7%) and coryneform bacteria were the microorganisms more frequently isolated from lungs (25.9%) and spleen samples (37.2%). These results may provide new insights into the pathogenesis and diagnosis of this pathology. The importance of coryneform bacteria and streptococci in such processes must be evaluated in future studies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus