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Transcriptomic Analysis of the Anterior Silk Gland in the Domestic Silkworm (Bombyx mori) - Insight into the Mechanism of Silk Formation and Spinning.

Chang H, Cheng T, Wu Y, Hu W, Long R, Liu C, Zhao P, Xia Q - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: A total of 7419 genes were found to be expressed in terms of reads per kilobase of exon model per million mapped reads ≥ 5 in at least one sample.The differentially expressed genes were analyzed, and 282 genes were detected as up-regulated in the anterior silk gland, compared with the other parts.In addition, 210 genes were found differently expressed between males and females, which should help to elucidate the mechanism of the quality difference in silk fibers from male and female silkworms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing, China; College of Biotechnology, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing, China.

ABSTRACT
Silk proteins are synthesized in the middle and posterior silk glands of silkworms, then transit into the anterior of the silk gland, where the silk fibers are produced, stored and processed. The mechanism of formation and spinning of the silk fibers has not been fully elucidated, and transcriptome analyses specific to the anterior silk gland have not been reported. In the present study, we explored gene expression profiles in five regions of silk gland samples using the RNA-Seq method. As a result, there were 959,979,570 raw reads obtained, of which 583,068,172 reads were mapped to the silkworm genome. A total of 7419 genes were found to be expressed in terms of reads per kilobase of exon model per million mapped reads ≥ 5 in at least one sample. The gene numbers and expression levels of the expressed genes differed between these regions. The differentially expressed genes were analyzed, and 282 genes were detected as up-regulated in the anterior silk gland, compared with the other parts. Functions of these genes were addressed using the gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases, and seven key pathways were enriched. It suggested that the ion transportation, energy metabolism, protease inhibitors and cuticle proteins played essential roles in the process of silk formation and spinning in the anterior silk gland. In addition, 210 genes were found differently expressed between males and females, which should help to elucidate the mechanism of the quality difference in silk fibers from male and female silkworms.

No MeSH data available.


Venn diagram of the up-regulated genes between ASG and other parts of the silk gland.(A) Respective overlaps of up-regulated genes in the ASG vs other parts of the silk glands from female silkworms. (B) Respective overlaps of up-regulated genes in the ASG vs other parts of the silk glands from male silkworms. (C) Up-regulated genes in the ASG and other parts of silk glands from females and males.
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pone.0139424.g003: Venn diagram of the up-regulated genes between ASG and other parts of the silk gland.(A) Respective overlaps of up-regulated genes in the ASG vs other parts of the silk glands from female silkworms. (B) Respective overlaps of up-regulated genes in the ASG vs other parts of the silk glands from male silkworms. (C) Up-regulated genes in the ASG and other parts of silk glands from females and males.

Mentions: The genes were considered to be highly expressed when the change fold was ≥2 (P-value < 0.05 and FDR < 0.001). Compared with the other parts, the up-regulated genes in the ASG were screened out (Fig 3). In male silkworms, 447, 391, 503 and 454 genes were up-regulated in the ASG compared with AMSG, MMSG, PMSG and PSG, respectively. There were 381, 373, 384 and 467 genes up-regulated in females. There were 282 genes up-regulated in ASG compared with all the other parts (S7 Table). The 282 genes were clustered using Cluster v3.0 (Fig 4), and the changes in expression levels in males were similar to those in females.


Transcriptomic Analysis of the Anterior Silk Gland in the Domestic Silkworm (Bombyx mori) - Insight into the Mechanism of Silk Formation and Spinning.

Chang H, Cheng T, Wu Y, Hu W, Long R, Liu C, Zhao P, Xia Q - PLoS ONE (2015)

Venn diagram of the up-regulated genes between ASG and other parts of the silk gland.(A) Respective overlaps of up-regulated genes in the ASG vs other parts of the silk glands from female silkworms. (B) Respective overlaps of up-regulated genes in the ASG vs other parts of the silk glands from male silkworms. (C) Up-regulated genes in the ASG and other parts of silk glands from females and males.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4587926&req=5

pone.0139424.g003: Venn diagram of the up-regulated genes between ASG and other parts of the silk gland.(A) Respective overlaps of up-regulated genes in the ASG vs other parts of the silk glands from female silkworms. (B) Respective overlaps of up-regulated genes in the ASG vs other parts of the silk glands from male silkworms. (C) Up-regulated genes in the ASG and other parts of silk glands from females and males.
Mentions: The genes were considered to be highly expressed when the change fold was ≥2 (P-value < 0.05 and FDR < 0.001). Compared with the other parts, the up-regulated genes in the ASG were screened out (Fig 3). In male silkworms, 447, 391, 503 and 454 genes were up-regulated in the ASG compared with AMSG, MMSG, PMSG and PSG, respectively. There were 381, 373, 384 and 467 genes up-regulated in females. There were 282 genes up-regulated in ASG compared with all the other parts (S7 Table). The 282 genes were clustered using Cluster v3.0 (Fig 4), and the changes in expression levels in males were similar to those in females.

Bottom Line: A total of 7419 genes were found to be expressed in terms of reads per kilobase of exon model per million mapped reads ≥ 5 in at least one sample.The differentially expressed genes were analyzed, and 282 genes were detected as up-regulated in the anterior silk gland, compared with the other parts.In addition, 210 genes were found differently expressed between males and females, which should help to elucidate the mechanism of the quality difference in silk fibers from male and female silkworms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing, China; College of Biotechnology, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing, China.

ABSTRACT
Silk proteins are synthesized in the middle and posterior silk glands of silkworms, then transit into the anterior of the silk gland, where the silk fibers are produced, stored and processed. The mechanism of formation and spinning of the silk fibers has not been fully elucidated, and transcriptome analyses specific to the anterior silk gland have not been reported. In the present study, we explored gene expression profiles in five regions of silk gland samples using the RNA-Seq method. As a result, there were 959,979,570 raw reads obtained, of which 583,068,172 reads were mapped to the silkworm genome. A total of 7419 genes were found to be expressed in terms of reads per kilobase of exon model per million mapped reads ≥ 5 in at least one sample. The gene numbers and expression levels of the expressed genes differed between these regions. The differentially expressed genes were analyzed, and 282 genes were detected as up-regulated in the anterior silk gland, compared with the other parts. Functions of these genes were addressed using the gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases, and seven key pathways were enriched. It suggested that the ion transportation, energy metabolism, protease inhibitors and cuticle proteins played essential roles in the process of silk formation and spinning in the anterior silk gland. In addition, 210 genes were found differently expressed between males and females, which should help to elucidate the mechanism of the quality difference in silk fibers from male and female silkworms.

No MeSH data available.