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Chemical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Methods to Assess Biodegradation of Winery-Distillery Wastes during Composting.

Torres-Climent A, Gomis P, Martín-Mata J, Bustamante MA, Marhuenda-Egea FC, Pérez-Murcia MD, Pérez-Espinosa A, Paredes C, Moral R - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: For this, three piles were elaborated by the turning composting system, using as raw materials winery-distillery wastes (grape marc and exhausted grape marc) and animal manures (cattle manure and poultry manure).The classical analytical methods showed a suitable development of the process in all the piles, but these techniques were ineffective to study the humification process during the composting of this type of materials.However, their combination with the advanced instrumental techniques clearly provided more information regarding the turnover of the organic matter pools during the composting process of these materials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Agrochemistry and Environment, Miguel Hernandez University, Orihuela, Alicante, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The objective of this work was to study the co-composting process of wastes from the winery and distillery industry with animal manures, using the classical chemical methods traditionally used in composting studies together with advanced instrumental methods (thermal analysis, FT-IR and CPMAS 13C NMR techniques), to evaluate the development of the process and the quality of the end-products obtained. For this, three piles were elaborated by the turning composting system, using as raw materials winery-distillery wastes (grape marc and exhausted grape marc) and animal manures (cattle manure and poultry manure). The classical analytical methods showed a suitable development of the process in all the piles, but these techniques were ineffective to study the humification process during the composting of this type of materials. However, their combination with the advanced instrumental techniques clearly provided more information regarding the turnover of the organic matter pools during the composting process of these materials. Thermal analysis allowed to estimate the degradability of the remaining material and to assess qualitatively the rate of OM stabilization and recalcitrant C in the compost samples, based on the energy required to achieve the same mass losses. FT-IR spectra mainly showed variations between piles and time of sampling in the bands associated to complex organic compounds (mainly at 1420 and 1540 cm-1) and to nitrate and inorganic components (at 875 and 1384 cm-1, respectively), indicating composted material stability and maturity; while CPMAS 13C NMR provided semi-quantitatively partition of C compounds and structures during the process, being especially interesting their variation to evaluate the biotransformation of each C pool, especially in the comparison of recalcitrant C vs labile C pools, such as Alkyl /O-Alkyl ratio.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

FTIR spectra of the samples of pile C during the composting process.Initial stage (black line) and maturity stage (grey line).
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pone.0138925.g005: FTIR spectra of the samples of pile C during the composting process.Initial stage (black line) and maturity stage (grey line).

Mentions: FT-IR spectra from the most representative samples (initial and mature samples of pile C) are displayed in Fig 5. Some of the most significant peaks are pointed. The variations in the FT-IR spectra during composting time were minor. The region between 2930–2880 cm-1 could be attributed to aliphatic groups in fatty acids [22] and its stationary behavior during the composting indicated the presence of vegetable material highly resistant to microbiological degradation, probably associated to molecules of vegetable origin like cutines, suberines or lignins [18]. Variations between piles and time of sampling in the FT-IR spectra were appreciated between 1800 and 600 cm-1 region. The band around 1540 cm-1 can be assigned to amide II and components containing lignin. These bands were identified in biowastes due to their content of wood and plants, which are rich in lignin [20]. The peak at 1420 cm-1 was due to the OH in-plane bend of carboxylic acids, the CO2 stretch of carboxylates and the aliphatic CH2 group of alkanes. The band at 1384 cm−1 was assigned to nitrate and inorganic components as carbonates absorb at 875 cm-1. However, a visual inspection of the FT-IR spectra bands of the samples did not show valuable differences among the samples during the composting process. In order to detect possible variations of the FT-IR bands during composting, the relative absorbance (rA) of certain signals was used [11, 20]. The relative absorbance is the height of one distinct band multiplied by 100 and divided by the sum of all compared band heights [42]. Bands heights were measured and corrected referring to the chosen baseline by OMNIC 5.1b software. Eight bands were used to calculate relative absorbances (rA): 2927, 2854, 1640, 1548, 1428, 1384, 1037, and 875 cm-1 (Table 4).


Chemical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Methods to Assess Biodegradation of Winery-Distillery Wastes during Composting.

Torres-Climent A, Gomis P, Martín-Mata J, Bustamante MA, Marhuenda-Egea FC, Pérez-Murcia MD, Pérez-Espinosa A, Paredes C, Moral R - PLoS ONE (2015)

FTIR spectra of the samples of pile C during the composting process.Initial stage (black line) and maturity stage (grey line).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4587889&req=5

pone.0138925.g005: FTIR spectra of the samples of pile C during the composting process.Initial stage (black line) and maturity stage (grey line).
Mentions: FT-IR spectra from the most representative samples (initial and mature samples of pile C) are displayed in Fig 5. Some of the most significant peaks are pointed. The variations in the FT-IR spectra during composting time were minor. The region between 2930–2880 cm-1 could be attributed to aliphatic groups in fatty acids [22] and its stationary behavior during the composting indicated the presence of vegetable material highly resistant to microbiological degradation, probably associated to molecules of vegetable origin like cutines, suberines or lignins [18]. Variations between piles and time of sampling in the FT-IR spectra were appreciated between 1800 and 600 cm-1 region. The band around 1540 cm-1 can be assigned to amide II and components containing lignin. These bands were identified in biowastes due to their content of wood and plants, which are rich in lignin [20]. The peak at 1420 cm-1 was due to the OH in-plane bend of carboxylic acids, the CO2 stretch of carboxylates and the aliphatic CH2 group of alkanes. The band at 1384 cm−1 was assigned to nitrate and inorganic components as carbonates absorb at 875 cm-1. However, a visual inspection of the FT-IR spectra bands of the samples did not show valuable differences among the samples during the composting process. In order to detect possible variations of the FT-IR bands during composting, the relative absorbance (rA) of certain signals was used [11, 20]. The relative absorbance is the height of one distinct band multiplied by 100 and divided by the sum of all compared band heights [42]. Bands heights were measured and corrected referring to the chosen baseline by OMNIC 5.1b software. Eight bands were used to calculate relative absorbances (rA): 2927, 2854, 1640, 1548, 1428, 1384, 1037, and 875 cm-1 (Table 4).

Bottom Line: For this, three piles were elaborated by the turning composting system, using as raw materials winery-distillery wastes (grape marc and exhausted grape marc) and animal manures (cattle manure and poultry manure).The classical analytical methods showed a suitable development of the process in all the piles, but these techniques were ineffective to study the humification process during the composting of this type of materials.However, their combination with the advanced instrumental techniques clearly provided more information regarding the turnover of the organic matter pools during the composting process of these materials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Agrochemistry and Environment, Miguel Hernandez University, Orihuela, Alicante, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The objective of this work was to study the co-composting process of wastes from the winery and distillery industry with animal manures, using the classical chemical methods traditionally used in composting studies together with advanced instrumental methods (thermal analysis, FT-IR and CPMAS 13C NMR techniques), to evaluate the development of the process and the quality of the end-products obtained. For this, three piles were elaborated by the turning composting system, using as raw materials winery-distillery wastes (grape marc and exhausted grape marc) and animal manures (cattle manure and poultry manure). The classical analytical methods showed a suitable development of the process in all the piles, but these techniques were ineffective to study the humification process during the composting of this type of materials. However, their combination with the advanced instrumental techniques clearly provided more information regarding the turnover of the organic matter pools during the composting process of these materials. Thermal analysis allowed to estimate the degradability of the remaining material and to assess qualitatively the rate of OM stabilization and recalcitrant C in the compost samples, based on the energy required to achieve the same mass losses. FT-IR spectra mainly showed variations between piles and time of sampling in the bands associated to complex organic compounds (mainly at 1420 and 1540 cm-1) and to nitrate and inorganic components (at 875 and 1384 cm-1, respectively), indicating composted material stability and maturity; while CPMAS 13C NMR provided semi-quantitatively partition of C compounds and structures during the process, being especially interesting their variation to evaluate the biotransformation of each C pool, especially in the comparison of recalcitrant C vs labile C pools, such as Alkyl /O-Alkyl ratio.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus