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Chemical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Methods to Assess Biodegradation of Winery-Distillery Wastes during Composting.

Torres-Climent A, Gomis P, Martín-Mata J, Bustamante MA, Marhuenda-Egea FC, Pérez-Murcia MD, Pérez-Espinosa A, Paredes C, Moral R - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: For this, three piles were elaborated by the turning composting system, using as raw materials winery-distillery wastes (grape marc and exhausted grape marc) and animal manures (cattle manure and poultry manure).The classical analytical methods showed a suitable development of the process in all the piles, but these techniques were ineffective to study the humification process during the composting of this type of materials.However, their combination with the advanced instrumental techniques clearly provided more information regarding the turnover of the organic matter pools during the composting process of these materials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Agrochemistry and Environment, Miguel Hernandez University, Orihuela, Alicante, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The objective of this work was to study the co-composting process of wastes from the winery and distillery industry with animal manures, using the classical chemical methods traditionally used in composting studies together with advanced instrumental methods (thermal analysis, FT-IR and CPMAS 13C NMR techniques), to evaluate the development of the process and the quality of the end-products obtained. For this, three piles were elaborated by the turning composting system, using as raw materials winery-distillery wastes (grape marc and exhausted grape marc) and animal manures (cattle manure and poultry manure). The classical analytical methods showed a suitable development of the process in all the piles, but these techniques were ineffective to study the humification process during the composting of this type of materials. However, their combination with the advanced instrumental techniques clearly provided more information regarding the turnover of the organic matter pools during the composting process of these materials. Thermal analysis allowed to estimate the degradability of the remaining material and to assess qualitatively the rate of OM stabilization and recalcitrant C in the compost samples, based on the energy required to achieve the same mass losses. FT-IR spectra mainly showed variations between piles and time of sampling in the bands associated to complex organic compounds (mainly at 1420 and 1540 cm-1) and to nitrate and inorganic components (at 875 and 1384 cm-1, respectively), indicating composted material stability and maturity; while CPMAS 13C NMR provided semi-quantitatively partition of C compounds and structures during the process, being especially interesting their variation to evaluate the biotransformation of each C pool, especially in the comparison of recalcitrant C vs labile C pools, such as Alkyl /O-Alkyl ratio.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

DTG curves for the compost samples of piles A, B and C.Black line corresponds to the samples at the initial phase of the composting process and the grey line corresponds to the mature composts.
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pone.0138925.g003: DTG curves for the compost samples of piles A, B and C.Black line corresponds to the samples at the initial phase of the composting process and the grey line corresponds to the mature composts.

Mentions: Thermogravimetric analysis (TG, DTG and DTA) were carried out to assess the changes in organic matter during the composting process. The thermograms of the compost samples for the piles A, B and C, corresponding to the initial and maturity stage of composting are shown in Fig 2. These thermograms displayed different steps-regions in the thermal analysis, linked to the complexity of the organic matter present in the compost samples. In the presence of atmospheric oxygen, two exothermic phenomena may occur in compost characterization, such as volatilization of aliphatic compounds or carbohydrates and the oxidation of high molecular weight compounds [35]. A clear change within the range of 250°C to 550°C is shown, which corresponds to the combustion of carbohydrates, aromatic compounds and other substances [35]. The three piles showed a similar behavior, the amount of matter that was burned being higher in the initial sample than in the corresponding mature compost sample at the same temperature. This trend suggests a progressive transformation of the biomass in the polyelectrolyte macromolecules known as humified matter and thus, the increase in the molecular weight, stability, and aromatization degree during the co-composting process [19, 36]. The heat-labile material was decomposed in the early stages of composting, producing that with time the most recalcitrant material become the material predominant in the compost piles. In the DTG profiles, three peaks can be distinguished between 250 and 530°C (Fig 3), associated to the degradation of organic matter [35]. The first peaks were obtained in the range between 250 and 400°C and the third one appeared between 450 and 500°C. The two peaks within the range of 250–420°C could be attributed to the combustion of carbohydrates, such as cellulose and lignocellulosic [35], which are main components of the plant material present in the winery and distillery wastes. The first peak decreased considerably with time in the piles B and C; however, in the samples of pile A only a slight change was observed (Fig 3). This fact could be due to a higher availability of easily degradable compounds, such as carbohydrates and proteins, in these piles. This confirms the previous results concerning the higher degradation rate observed in these piles, especially in pile B, using the classical analytical approach. Moreover, the contents in carbohydrates in the piles decreased throughout the composting process due to the microbial degradation processes, implying an enrichment in recalcitrant material due to the concentration effect. These recalcitrant compounds constitute the fraction of material that combusted in the range of 450 and 500°C. Different authors [35, 37] have also attributed the range between 350–500°C to the degradation of complex aromatic structures, such as the humified organic matter. Therefore, more stabilized samples take more energy for decomposition, e.g. require higher temperatures to achieve the same mass losses, due to these samples are richer in highly complex aromatic compounds compared to the initial ones, which indicates the OM stabilization during the composting process.


Chemical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Methods to Assess Biodegradation of Winery-Distillery Wastes during Composting.

Torres-Climent A, Gomis P, Martín-Mata J, Bustamante MA, Marhuenda-Egea FC, Pérez-Murcia MD, Pérez-Espinosa A, Paredes C, Moral R - PLoS ONE (2015)

DTG curves for the compost samples of piles A, B and C.Black line corresponds to the samples at the initial phase of the composting process and the grey line corresponds to the mature composts.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4587889&req=5

pone.0138925.g003: DTG curves for the compost samples of piles A, B and C.Black line corresponds to the samples at the initial phase of the composting process and the grey line corresponds to the mature composts.
Mentions: Thermogravimetric analysis (TG, DTG and DTA) were carried out to assess the changes in organic matter during the composting process. The thermograms of the compost samples for the piles A, B and C, corresponding to the initial and maturity stage of composting are shown in Fig 2. These thermograms displayed different steps-regions in the thermal analysis, linked to the complexity of the organic matter present in the compost samples. In the presence of atmospheric oxygen, two exothermic phenomena may occur in compost characterization, such as volatilization of aliphatic compounds or carbohydrates and the oxidation of high molecular weight compounds [35]. A clear change within the range of 250°C to 550°C is shown, which corresponds to the combustion of carbohydrates, aromatic compounds and other substances [35]. The three piles showed a similar behavior, the amount of matter that was burned being higher in the initial sample than in the corresponding mature compost sample at the same temperature. This trend suggests a progressive transformation of the biomass in the polyelectrolyte macromolecules known as humified matter and thus, the increase in the molecular weight, stability, and aromatization degree during the co-composting process [19, 36]. The heat-labile material was decomposed in the early stages of composting, producing that with time the most recalcitrant material become the material predominant in the compost piles. In the DTG profiles, three peaks can be distinguished between 250 and 530°C (Fig 3), associated to the degradation of organic matter [35]. The first peaks were obtained in the range between 250 and 400°C and the third one appeared between 450 and 500°C. The two peaks within the range of 250–420°C could be attributed to the combustion of carbohydrates, such as cellulose and lignocellulosic [35], which are main components of the plant material present in the winery and distillery wastes. The first peak decreased considerably with time in the piles B and C; however, in the samples of pile A only a slight change was observed (Fig 3). This fact could be due to a higher availability of easily degradable compounds, such as carbohydrates and proteins, in these piles. This confirms the previous results concerning the higher degradation rate observed in these piles, especially in pile B, using the classical analytical approach. Moreover, the contents in carbohydrates in the piles decreased throughout the composting process due to the microbial degradation processes, implying an enrichment in recalcitrant material due to the concentration effect. These recalcitrant compounds constitute the fraction of material that combusted in the range of 450 and 500°C. Different authors [35, 37] have also attributed the range between 350–500°C to the degradation of complex aromatic structures, such as the humified organic matter. Therefore, more stabilized samples take more energy for decomposition, e.g. require higher temperatures to achieve the same mass losses, due to these samples are richer in highly complex aromatic compounds compared to the initial ones, which indicates the OM stabilization during the composting process.

Bottom Line: For this, three piles were elaborated by the turning composting system, using as raw materials winery-distillery wastes (grape marc and exhausted grape marc) and animal manures (cattle manure and poultry manure).The classical analytical methods showed a suitable development of the process in all the piles, but these techniques were ineffective to study the humification process during the composting of this type of materials.However, their combination with the advanced instrumental techniques clearly provided more information regarding the turnover of the organic matter pools during the composting process of these materials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Agrochemistry and Environment, Miguel Hernandez University, Orihuela, Alicante, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The objective of this work was to study the co-composting process of wastes from the winery and distillery industry with animal manures, using the classical chemical methods traditionally used in composting studies together with advanced instrumental methods (thermal analysis, FT-IR and CPMAS 13C NMR techniques), to evaluate the development of the process and the quality of the end-products obtained. For this, three piles were elaborated by the turning composting system, using as raw materials winery-distillery wastes (grape marc and exhausted grape marc) and animal manures (cattle manure and poultry manure). The classical analytical methods showed a suitable development of the process in all the piles, but these techniques were ineffective to study the humification process during the composting of this type of materials. However, their combination with the advanced instrumental techniques clearly provided more information regarding the turnover of the organic matter pools during the composting process of these materials. Thermal analysis allowed to estimate the degradability of the remaining material and to assess qualitatively the rate of OM stabilization and recalcitrant C in the compost samples, based on the energy required to achieve the same mass losses. FT-IR spectra mainly showed variations between piles and time of sampling in the bands associated to complex organic compounds (mainly at 1420 and 1540 cm-1) and to nitrate and inorganic components (at 875 and 1384 cm-1, respectively), indicating composted material stability and maturity; while CPMAS 13C NMR provided semi-quantitatively partition of C compounds and structures during the process, being especially interesting their variation to evaluate the biotransformation of each C pool, especially in the comparison of recalcitrant C vs labile C pools, such as Alkyl /O-Alkyl ratio.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus