Limits...
Relation between Intensity of Biocide Practice and Residues of Anticoagulant Rodenticides in Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

Geduhn A, Jacob J, Schenke D, Keller B, Kleinschmidt S, Esther A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Local livestock density and the percentage of urban area were good indicators for AR residue occurrence.There was a positive association between pooled ARs and brodifacoum occurrence with livestock density as well as of pooled ARs, brodifacoum and difenacoum occurrence with the percentage of urban area on administrative district level.Pig holding drove associations of livestock density to AR residue occurrence in foxes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Julius Kühn Institute, Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Institute for Plant Protection in Horticulture and Forests, Vertebrate Research, Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany; University of Münster, Institute of Landscape Ecology, Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are commonly used to control rodent infestations for biocidal and plant protection purposes. This can lead to AR exposure of non-target small mammals and their predators, which is known from several regions of the world. However, drivers of exposure variation are usually not known. To identify environmental drivers of AR exposure in non-targets we analyzed 331 liver samples of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) for residues of eight ARs and used local parameters (percentage of urban area and livestock density) to test for associations to residue occurrence. 59.8% of samples collected across Germany contained at least one rodenticide, in 20.2% of cases at levels at which biological effects are suspected. Second generation anticoagulants (mainly brodifacoum and bromadiolone) occurred more often than first generation anticoagulants. Local livestock density and the percentage of urban area were good indicators for AR residue occurrence. There was a positive association between pooled ARs and brodifacoum occurrence with livestock density as well as of pooled ARs, brodifacoum and difenacoum occurrence with the percentage of urban area on administrative district level. Pig holding drove associations of livestock density to AR residue occurrence in foxes. Therefore, risk mitigation strategies should focus on areas of high pig density and on highly urbanized areas to minimize non-target risk.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Associations between local parameters and residue occurrence of anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs).Relations between residue occurrence (y-axis [%]) in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) livers and livestock density as well as the percentage of urban area per district in Germany (N = 14) are displayed for pooled anticoagulants (AR; any of all eight analyzed ARs), brodifacoum (BR), bromadiolone (BM), difenacoum (DN) and flocoumafen (F). Lines represent model predictions. Significant associations are marked with *.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4587841&req=5

pone.0139191.g004: Associations between local parameters and residue occurrence of anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs).Relations between residue occurrence (y-axis [%]) in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) livers and livestock density as well as the percentage of urban area per district in Germany (N = 14) are displayed for pooled anticoagulants (AR; any of all eight analyzed ARs), brodifacoum (BR), bromadiolone (BM), difenacoum (DN) and flocoumafen (F). Lines represent model predictions. Significant associations are marked with *.

Mentions: Livestock density was positively associated with the occurrence of pooled ARs and the occurrence of brodifacoum in the 14 districts (Table 3, Fig 4). AR occurrence ranged from 79 to 100% in samples from districts with a livestock density above 0.45, whereas below 0.45 AR occurrence varied between 17 and 86% but mostly between 40 and 65% (Fig 4). Brodifacoum occurrence in foxes from districts with livestock densities above 0.45 varied from 55 to 100% whereas below that threshold brodifacoum occurred in 13 to 76% of samples per district (Fig 4).


Relation between Intensity of Biocide Practice and Residues of Anticoagulant Rodenticides in Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

Geduhn A, Jacob J, Schenke D, Keller B, Kleinschmidt S, Esther A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Associations between local parameters and residue occurrence of anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs).Relations between residue occurrence (y-axis [%]) in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) livers and livestock density as well as the percentage of urban area per district in Germany (N = 14) are displayed for pooled anticoagulants (AR; any of all eight analyzed ARs), brodifacoum (BR), bromadiolone (BM), difenacoum (DN) and flocoumafen (F). Lines represent model predictions. Significant associations are marked with *.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4587841&req=5

pone.0139191.g004: Associations between local parameters and residue occurrence of anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs).Relations between residue occurrence (y-axis [%]) in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) livers and livestock density as well as the percentage of urban area per district in Germany (N = 14) are displayed for pooled anticoagulants (AR; any of all eight analyzed ARs), brodifacoum (BR), bromadiolone (BM), difenacoum (DN) and flocoumafen (F). Lines represent model predictions. Significant associations are marked with *.
Mentions: Livestock density was positively associated with the occurrence of pooled ARs and the occurrence of brodifacoum in the 14 districts (Table 3, Fig 4). AR occurrence ranged from 79 to 100% in samples from districts with a livestock density above 0.45, whereas below 0.45 AR occurrence varied between 17 and 86% but mostly between 40 and 65% (Fig 4). Brodifacoum occurrence in foxes from districts with livestock densities above 0.45 varied from 55 to 100% whereas below that threshold brodifacoum occurred in 13 to 76% of samples per district (Fig 4).

Bottom Line: Local livestock density and the percentage of urban area were good indicators for AR residue occurrence.There was a positive association between pooled ARs and brodifacoum occurrence with livestock density as well as of pooled ARs, brodifacoum and difenacoum occurrence with the percentage of urban area on administrative district level.Pig holding drove associations of livestock density to AR residue occurrence in foxes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Julius Kühn Institute, Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Institute for Plant Protection in Horticulture and Forests, Vertebrate Research, Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany; University of Münster, Institute of Landscape Ecology, Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are commonly used to control rodent infestations for biocidal and plant protection purposes. This can lead to AR exposure of non-target small mammals and their predators, which is known from several regions of the world. However, drivers of exposure variation are usually not known. To identify environmental drivers of AR exposure in non-targets we analyzed 331 liver samples of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) for residues of eight ARs and used local parameters (percentage of urban area and livestock density) to test for associations to residue occurrence. 59.8% of samples collected across Germany contained at least one rodenticide, in 20.2% of cases at levels at which biological effects are suspected. Second generation anticoagulants (mainly brodifacoum and bromadiolone) occurred more often than first generation anticoagulants. Local livestock density and the percentage of urban area were good indicators for AR residue occurrence. There was a positive association between pooled ARs and brodifacoum occurrence with livestock density as well as of pooled ARs, brodifacoum and difenacoum occurrence with the percentage of urban area on administrative district level. Pig holding drove associations of livestock density to AR residue occurrence in foxes. Therefore, risk mitigation strategies should focus on areas of high pig density and on highly urbanized areas to minimize non-target risk.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus