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Do Hybrid Trees Inherit Invasive Characteristics? Fruits of Corymbia torelliana X C. citriodora Hybrids and Potential for Seed Dispersal by Bees.

Wallace HM, Leonhardt SD - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Corymbia torelliana is an invasive tree with an unusual animal dispersal mechanism: seed dispersal by stingless bees, that hybridizes readily with other species.Some hybrid fruits displayed the characteristic hollowness, resin production and resin chemistry associated with seed dispersal by bees.We conclude that C. torelliana and C. citriodora subsp. citriodora hybrids can inherit some fruit characters that are associated with dispersal by bees, but we did not find a hybrid with the complete set of characters that would enable bee dispersal.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Genecology Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC 4558, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Tree invasions have substantial impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, and trees that are dispersed by animals are more likely to become invasive. In addition, hybridisation between plants is well documented as a source of new weeds, as hybrids gain new characteristics that allow them to become invasive. Corymbia torelliana is an invasive tree with an unusual animal dispersal mechanism: seed dispersal by stingless bees, that hybridizes readily with other species. We examined hybrids between C. torelliana and C. citriodora subsp. citriodora to determine whether hybrids have inherited the seed dispersal characteristics of C. torelliana that allow bee dispersal. Some hybrid fruits displayed the characteristic hollowness, resin production and resin chemistry associated with seed dispersal by bees. However, we did not observe bees foraging on any hybrid fruits until they had been damaged. We conclude that C. torelliana and C. citriodora subsp. citriodora hybrids can inherit some fruit characters that are associated with dispersal by bees, but we did not find a hybrid with the complete set of characters that would enable bee dispersal. However, around 20,000 hybrids have been planted in Australia, and ongoing monitoring is necessary to identify any hybrids that may become invasive.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Dendrogram (derived from hierarchical cluster analysis based on Bray-Curtis distances between compounds) of chemical distances between resin of Corymbia torelliana and C. torelliana × C. citriodora subsp. citriodora hybrids (hybrid 85, 87 and 89) with chromatogram of each sample.Ranges where monoterpenes (MT), sesquiterpenes (ST) and non-volatile compounds, such as triterpenes (TT), typically dilute in our method are indicated by brackets. Arrows mark a flavonoid (C15H22O3) characteristically found in resin of C. torelliana fruits.
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pone.0138868.g004: Dendrogram (derived from hierarchical cluster analysis based on Bray-Curtis distances between compounds) of chemical distances between resin of Corymbia torelliana and C. torelliana × C. citriodora subsp. citriodora hybrids (hybrid 85, 87 and 89) with chromatogram of each sample.Ranges where monoterpenes (MT), sesquiterpenes (ST) and non-volatile compounds, such as triterpenes (TT), typically dilute in our method are indicated by brackets. Arrows mark a flavonoid (C15H22O3) characteristically found in resin of C. torelliana fruits.

Mentions: Resins of three C. torelliana trees and three hybrids differed significantly in their chemical composition (Adonis, all compounds: R2 = 0.43, P < 0.001, Fig 4), as resins of hybrid 85 and hybrid 87 were chemically more distant from C. torelliana resin than resin of hybrid 89 (Fig 4). Differences were both qualitative and quantitative and could be attributed to several mono- and sesquiterpenes as well as to several unidentified non-volatile compounds (Table 3). However, when only volatile compounds were considered, resins from C. torelliana and hybrids did not significantly differ in their chemical composition (Adonis: R2 = 0.35, p = 0.10).


Do Hybrid Trees Inherit Invasive Characteristics? Fruits of Corymbia torelliana X C. citriodora Hybrids and Potential for Seed Dispersal by Bees.

Wallace HM, Leonhardt SD - PLoS ONE (2015)

Dendrogram (derived from hierarchical cluster analysis based on Bray-Curtis distances between compounds) of chemical distances between resin of Corymbia torelliana and C. torelliana × C. citriodora subsp. citriodora hybrids (hybrid 85, 87 and 89) with chromatogram of each sample.Ranges where monoterpenes (MT), sesquiterpenes (ST) and non-volatile compounds, such as triterpenes (TT), typically dilute in our method are indicated by brackets. Arrows mark a flavonoid (C15H22O3) characteristically found in resin of C. torelliana fruits.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4587733&req=5

pone.0138868.g004: Dendrogram (derived from hierarchical cluster analysis based on Bray-Curtis distances between compounds) of chemical distances between resin of Corymbia torelliana and C. torelliana × C. citriodora subsp. citriodora hybrids (hybrid 85, 87 and 89) with chromatogram of each sample.Ranges where monoterpenes (MT), sesquiterpenes (ST) and non-volatile compounds, such as triterpenes (TT), typically dilute in our method are indicated by brackets. Arrows mark a flavonoid (C15H22O3) characteristically found in resin of C. torelliana fruits.
Mentions: Resins of three C. torelliana trees and three hybrids differed significantly in their chemical composition (Adonis, all compounds: R2 = 0.43, P < 0.001, Fig 4), as resins of hybrid 85 and hybrid 87 were chemically more distant from C. torelliana resin than resin of hybrid 89 (Fig 4). Differences were both qualitative and quantitative and could be attributed to several mono- and sesquiterpenes as well as to several unidentified non-volatile compounds (Table 3). However, when only volatile compounds were considered, resins from C. torelliana and hybrids did not significantly differ in their chemical composition (Adonis: R2 = 0.35, p = 0.10).

Bottom Line: Corymbia torelliana is an invasive tree with an unusual animal dispersal mechanism: seed dispersal by stingless bees, that hybridizes readily with other species.Some hybrid fruits displayed the characteristic hollowness, resin production and resin chemistry associated with seed dispersal by bees.We conclude that C. torelliana and C. citriodora subsp. citriodora hybrids can inherit some fruit characters that are associated with dispersal by bees, but we did not find a hybrid with the complete set of characters that would enable bee dispersal.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Genecology Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC 4558, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Tree invasions have substantial impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, and trees that are dispersed by animals are more likely to become invasive. In addition, hybridisation between plants is well documented as a source of new weeds, as hybrids gain new characteristics that allow them to become invasive. Corymbia torelliana is an invasive tree with an unusual animal dispersal mechanism: seed dispersal by stingless bees, that hybridizes readily with other species. We examined hybrids between C. torelliana and C. citriodora subsp. citriodora to determine whether hybrids have inherited the seed dispersal characteristics of C. torelliana that allow bee dispersal. Some hybrid fruits displayed the characteristic hollowness, resin production and resin chemistry associated with seed dispersal by bees. However, we did not observe bees foraging on any hybrid fruits until they had been damaged. We conclude that C. torelliana and C. citriodora subsp. citriodora hybrids can inherit some fruit characters that are associated with dispersal by bees, but we did not find a hybrid with the complete set of characters that would enable bee dispersal. However, around 20,000 hybrids have been planted in Australia, and ongoing monitoring is necessary to identify any hybrids that may become invasive.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus