Limits...
Reproductive constraints influence habitat accessibility, segregation, and preference of sympatric albatross species.

Kappes MA, Shaffer SA, Tremblay Y, Foley DG, Palacios DM, Bograd SJ, Costa DP - Mov Ecol (2015)

Bottom Line: Individuals of both species ranged significantly farther and for longer durations during incubation and chick-rearing compared to the brooding period.Habitat selection during long-ranging movements was most strongly associated with sea surface temperature for both species, with a preference for cooler ocean temperatures compared to overall availability.Compared to other albatross species, Laysan and black-footed albatrosses spend a greater proportion of time in flight when foraging, especially during the brooding period; this strategy may be adaptive for locating dispersed prey in an oligotrophic environment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, 100 Shaffer Road, Santa Cruz, California 95060 USA ; Present address: Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, 104 Nash Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: The spatiotemporal distribution of animals is dependent on a suite of factors, including the distribution of resources, interactions within and between species, physiological limitations, and requirements for reproduction, dispersal, or migration. During breeding, reproductive constraints play a major role in the distribution and behavior of central place foragers, such as pelagic seabirds. We examined the foraging behavior and marine habitat selection of Laysan (Phoebastria immutabilis) and black-footed (P. nigripes) albatrosses throughout their eight month breeding cycle at Tern Island, Northwest Hawaiian Islands to evaluate how variable constraints of breeding influenced habitat availability and foraging decisions. We used satellite tracking and light-based geolocation to determine foraging locations of individuals, and applied a biologically realistic usage model to generate control locations and model habitat preference under a case-control design. Remotely sensed oceanographic data were used to characterize albatross habitats in the North Pacific.

Results: Individuals of both species ranged significantly farther and for longer durations during incubation and chick-rearing compared to the brooding period. Interspecific segregation of core foraging areas was observed during incubation and chick-rearing, but not during brooding. At-sea activity patterns were most similar between species during brooding; neither species altered foraging effort to compensate for presumed low prey availability and high energy demands during this stage. Habitat selection during long-ranging movements was most strongly associated with sea surface temperature for both species, with a preference for cooler ocean temperatures compared to overall availability. During brooding, lower explanatory power of habitat models was likely related to the narrow range of ocean temperatures available for selection.

Conclusions: Laysan and black-footed albatrosses differ from other albatross species in that they breed in an oligotrophic marine environment. During incubation and chick-rearing, they travel to cooler, more productive waters, but are restricted to the low-productivity environment near the colony during brooding, when energy requirements are greatest. Compared to other albatross species, Laysan and black-footed albatrosses spend a greater proportion of time in flight when foraging, especially during the brooding period; this strategy may be adaptive for locating dispersed prey in an oligotrophic environment.

No MeSH data available.


Tracking locations of Laysan and black-footed albatrosses breeding at Tern Island, Northwest Hawaiian Islands. Data encompass five breeding seasons, from 2002–03 through 2006–07, for Laysan albatrosses during incubation a brooding b and chick-rearing c and black-footed albatrosses during incubation d brooding e and chick-rearing f
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Fig1: Tracking locations of Laysan and black-footed albatrosses breeding at Tern Island, Northwest Hawaiian Islands. Data encompass five breeding seasons, from 2002–03 through 2006–07, for Laysan albatrosses during incubation a brooding b and chick-rearing c and black-footed albatrosses during incubation d brooding e and chick-rearing f

Mentions: Laysan and black-footed albatrosses breeding at Tern Island rarely made southward departures from the colony (Fig. 1); therefore we also modeled habitat preference using a more restrictive model of usage to reflect the northern bias of tracking locations (see Appendix A in Additional file 1) and to ensure conclusions were not sensitive to the choice of usage model. Final habitat models and response curves of selected covariates were generally similar irrespective of the usage model (see Results and Appendix A in Additional file 1), therefore we present only the results based on the simpler usage model, which assumed that locations were accessible within the maximum range observed for each species-stage, regardless of the direction from the colony. This required fewer assumptions regarding accessibility of habitats, and followed the implementation of Wakefield et al. [82].Fig. 1


Reproductive constraints influence habitat accessibility, segregation, and preference of sympatric albatross species.

Kappes MA, Shaffer SA, Tremblay Y, Foley DG, Palacios DM, Bograd SJ, Costa DP - Mov Ecol (2015)

Tracking locations of Laysan and black-footed albatrosses breeding at Tern Island, Northwest Hawaiian Islands. Data encompass five breeding seasons, from 2002–03 through 2006–07, for Laysan albatrosses during incubation a brooding b and chick-rearing c and black-footed albatrosses during incubation d brooding e and chick-rearing f
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4587674&req=5

Fig1: Tracking locations of Laysan and black-footed albatrosses breeding at Tern Island, Northwest Hawaiian Islands. Data encompass five breeding seasons, from 2002–03 through 2006–07, for Laysan albatrosses during incubation a brooding b and chick-rearing c and black-footed albatrosses during incubation d brooding e and chick-rearing f
Mentions: Laysan and black-footed albatrosses breeding at Tern Island rarely made southward departures from the colony (Fig. 1); therefore we also modeled habitat preference using a more restrictive model of usage to reflect the northern bias of tracking locations (see Appendix A in Additional file 1) and to ensure conclusions were not sensitive to the choice of usage model. Final habitat models and response curves of selected covariates were generally similar irrespective of the usage model (see Results and Appendix A in Additional file 1), therefore we present only the results based on the simpler usage model, which assumed that locations were accessible within the maximum range observed for each species-stage, regardless of the direction from the colony. This required fewer assumptions regarding accessibility of habitats, and followed the implementation of Wakefield et al. [82].Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Individuals of both species ranged significantly farther and for longer durations during incubation and chick-rearing compared to the brooding period.Habitat selection during long-ranging movements was most strongly associated with sea surface temperature for both species, with a preference for cooler ocean temperatures compared to overall availability.Compared to other albatross species, Laysan and black-footed albatrosses spend a greater proportion of time in flight when foraging, especially during the brooding period; this strategy may be adaptive for locating dispersed prey in an oligotrophic environment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, 100 Shaffer Road, Santa Cruz, California 95060 USA ; Present address: Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, 104 Nash Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: The spatiotemporal distribution of animals is dependent on a suite of factors, including the distribution of resources, interactions within and between species, physiological limitations, and requirements for reproduction, dispersal, or migration. During breeding, reproductive constraints play a major role in the distribution and behavior of central place foragers, such as pelagic seabirds. We examined the foraging behavior and marine habitat selection of Laysan (Phoebastria immutabilis) and black-footed (P. nigripes) albatrosses throughout their eight month breeding cycle at Tern Island, Northwest Hawaiian Islands to evaluate how variable constraints of breeding influenced habitat availability and foraging decisions. We used satellite tracking and light-based geolocation to determine foraging locations of individuals, and applied a biologically realistic usage model to generate control locations and model habitat preference under a case-control design. Remotely sensed oceanographic data were used to characterize albatross habitats in the North Pacific.

Results: Individuals of both species ranged significantly farther and for longer durations during incubation and chick-rearing compared to the brooding period. Interspecific segregation of core foraging areas was observed during incubation and chick-rearing, but not during brooding. At-sea activity patterns were most similar between species during brooding; neither species altered foraging effort to compensate for presumed low prey availability and high energy demands during this stage. Habitat selection during long-ranging movements was most strongly associated with sea surface temperature for both species, with a preference for cooler ocean temperatures compared to overall availability. During brooding, lower explanatory power of habitat models was likely related to the narrow range of ocean temperatures available for selection.

Conclusions: Laysan and black-footed albatrosses differ from other albatross species in that they breed in an oligotrophic marine environment. During incubation and chick-rearing, they travel to cooler, more productive waters, but are restricted to the low-productivity environment near the colony during brooding, when energy requirements are greatest. Compared to other albatross species, Laysan and black-footed albatrosses spend a greater proportion of time in flight when foraging, especially during the brooding period; this strategy may be adaptive for locating dispersed prey in an oligotrophic environment.

No MeSH data available.