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Panax ginseng Improves Functional Recovery after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury by Regulating the Inflammatory Response in Rats: An In Vivo Study.

Kim YO, Kim Y, Lee K, Na SW, Hong SP, Valan Arasu M, Yoon YW, Kim J - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2015)

Bottom Line: Ginseng is well known to possess anti-inflammatory effects.The protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS at the lesion site and the cavity area were decreased following SCI by P. ginseng treatment.These results suggest that P. ginseng may improve the recovery of motor function after SCI which provides neuroprotection by alleviating posttraumatic inflammatory responses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicinal Crop Research, Rural Development Administration, Eumseong, Chungbuk 369-873, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in permanent loss of motor function below the injured site. Neuroinflammatory reaction following SCI can aggravate neural injury and functional impairment. Ginseng is well known to possess anti-inflammatory effects. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer (P. ginseng) after SCI. A spinal contusion was made at the T11-12 spinal cord in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 47) using the NYU impactor. Motor function was assessed using the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) score in P. ginseng (0.1, 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 mg/kg) or vehicle (saline) treated after SCI. We also assessed the protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at the lesion site by western blot and then measured the cavity area using luxol fast blue/cresyl violet staining. P. ginseng treated group in SCI showed a significant improvement in locomotor function after the injury. The protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS at the lesion site and the cavity area were decreased following SCI by P. ginseng treatment. These results suggest that P. ginseng may improve the recovery of motor function after SCI which provides neuroprotection by alleviating posttraumatic inflammatory responses.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of P. ginseng (1 mg/kg) on the COX-2 and iNOS expression. Western blot analysis of extracts of spinal cord tissue collected on 2 days after injury. P. ginseng treatment reduced COX-2 and iNOS levels.
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fig2: Effect of P. ginseng (1 mg/kg) on the COX-2 and iNOS expression. Western blot analysis of extracts of spinal cord tissue collected on 2 days after injury. P. ginseng treatment reduced COX-2 and iNOS levels.

Mentions: To evaluate the effects of P. ginseng on posttraumatic inflammatory response, the protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS in the injured level of the spinal cord were investigated by western blot at 2 days after spinal contusion. Motor function recovery was statically significant differences between the high doses of P. ginseng treated group and saline group; however, there was no statistically significant difference in P. ginseng treatment expression and lesion volume after P. ginseng treatment in SCI rats. The expression level of COX-2 and iNOS was significantly increased in the spinal cord tissues at the lesion site of SCI with saline treated group. However, as shown in Figure 2, protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS at the injured site following SCI was significantly reduced by P. ginseng (1 mg/kg) treatment (p < 0.05).


Panax ginseng Improves Functional Recovery after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury by Regulating the Inflammatory Response in Rats: An In Vivo Study.

Kim YO, Kim Y, Lee K, Na SW, Hong SP, Valan Arasu M, Yoon YW, Kim J - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2015)

Effect of P. ginseng (1 mg/kg) on the COX-2 and iNOS expression. Western blot analysis of extracts of spinal cord tissue collected on 2 days after injury. P. ginseng treatment reduced COX-2 and iNOS levels.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4587432&req=5

fig2: Effect of P. ginseng (1 mg/kg) on the COX-2 and iNOS expression. Western blot analysis of extracts of spinal cord tissue collected on 2 days after injury. P. ginseng treatment reduced COX-2 and iNOS levels.
Mentions: To evaluate the effects of P. ginseng on posttraumatic inflammatory response, the protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS in the injured level of the spinal cord were investigated by western blot at 2 days after spinal contusion. Motor function recovery was statically significant differences between the high doses of P. ginseng treated group and saline group; however, there was no statistically significant difference in P. ginseng treatment expression and lesion volume after P. ginseng treatment in SCI rats. The expression level of COX-2 and iNOS was significantly increased in the spinal cord tissues at the lesion site of SCI with saline treated group. However, as shown in Figure 2, protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS at the injured site following SCI was significantly reduced by P. ginseng (1 mg/kg) treatment (p < 0.05).

Bottom Line: Ginseng is well known to possess anti-inflammatory effects.The protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS at the lesion site and the cavity area were decreased following SCI by P. ginseng treatment.These results suggest that P. ginseng may improve the recovery of motor function after SCI which provides neuroprotection by alleviating posttraumatic inflammatory responses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicinal Crop Research, Rural Development Administration, Eumseong, Chungbuk 369-873, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in permanent loss of motor function below the injured site. Neuroinflammatory reaction following SCI can aggravate neural injury and functional impairment. Ginseng is well known to possess anti-inflammatory effects. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer (P. ginseng) after SCI. A spinal contusion was made at the T11-12 spinal cord in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 47) using the NYU impactor. Motor function was assessed using the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) score in P. ginseng (0.1, 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 mg/kg) or vehicle (saline) treated after SCI. We also assessed the protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at the lesion site by western blot and then measured the cavity area using luxol fast blue/cresyl violet staining. P. ginseng treated group in SCI showed a significant improvement in locomotor function after the injury. The protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS at the lesion site and the cavity area were decreased following SCI by P. ginseng treatment. These results suggest that P. ginseng may improve the recovery of motor function after SCI which provides neuroprotection by alleviating posttraumatic inflammatory responses.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus