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A field experiment with elevated atmospheric CO2-mediated changes to C4 crop-herbivore interactions.

Xie H, Liu K, Sun D, Wang Z, Lu X, He K - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: The results indicated that there was a positive effect of E-CO2 on the accumulation of maize biomass, i.e., the "air-fertilizer" effect, which led to a nutritional deficiency in the plants.The fitness-related parameters of ACB were adversely affected by the CO2-mediated decreased in plant nutritional quality, and ACB might alter its food consumption to compensate for these changes.Larval damage to maize under E-CO2 appears to be offset by this "air-fertilizer" effect, with reductions in larval fitness.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, P. R. China.

ABSTRACT
The effects of elevated CO2 (E-CO2) on maize and Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis, in open-top chambers were studied. The plants were infested with ACB and exposed to ambient and elevated (550 and 750 μl/l) CO2. E-CO2 increased the plant height and kernel number per ear. The plants had lower nitrogen contents and higher TNC: N ratios under E-CO2 than at ambient CO2. The response of plant height to E-CO2 was significantly dampened in plants with ACB infestation. However, the weight gain of the survivors declined in plants grown under E-CO2. Moreover, the plant damage caused by ACB was not different among the treatments. Overwintering larvae developed under E-CO2 had a lower supercooling point than those developed under ambient CO2. The results indicated that there was a positive effect of E-CO2 on the accumulation of maize biomass, i.e., the "air-fertilizer" effect, which led to a nutritional deficiency in the plants. The fitness-related parameters of ACB were adversely affected by the CO2-mediated decreased in plant nutritional quality, and ACB might alter its food consumption to compensate for these changes. Larval damage to maize under E-CO2 appears to be offset by this "air-fertilizer" effect, with reductions in larval fitness.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Height of maize plants in response to the effect of Ostrinia furnacalis infestation under different CO2 levels in 2012 and 2013.Different letters indicate significant differences among treatments (CONTRASTS test, P < 0.05).
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f1: Height of maize plants in response to the effect of Ostrinia furnacalis infestation under different CO2 levels in 2012 and 2013.Different letters indicate significant differences among treatments (CONTRASTS test, P < 0.05).

Mentions: The results revealed that the E-CO2 had a positive effect on the growth of plants, whereas the ACB infestation affected plant growth negatively (Fig. 1). A significant “air fertilizer” effect of E-CO2 was observed on maize plant growth (2012: F2,6 = 4.92, P < 0.05, Fig. 1A; 2013: F2,6 = 5.23, P < 0.05, Fig. 1B). Averaged over 2 years, the height of maize plants significantly increased by 3.85% under 750 μl/l compared with the ambient CO2. By contrast, the ACB damage at the whorl stage significantly suppressed the growth of maize plants (2012: F2,8 = 8.94, P < 0.01, Fig. 1C; 2013: F2,8 = 33.25, P < 0.01, Fig. 1D). Averaged over 2 years, the height of maize plants decreased by 6.54% with an ACB infestation at the whorl stage compared with the control. Overall, the ACB damage at the whorl stage completely dampened the positive height response of the maize plants to the E-CO2 (Fig. 1), which suggested that the larvae altered their food consumption to compensate for the changes in the quality of the maize plants. Additionally, the grain yields of the maize plants were significantly affected by the concentration of CO2 (Table 4). The average number of kernels per ear increased by 4.3% and 4.5% in 2012 and 2013, respectively, under E-CO2 (750 μl/l) compared with the ambient CO2. There was no significant difference in the weight per 100-kernels among the treatments. These results demonstrated the positive effect of E-CO2 on maize grain production. The damage ratings of the ACB were unaffected by the concentration of CO2 during the two years (Table 5). There were no significant differences in the number of tunnels per plant or in the length of cavities per plant among the treatments.


A field experiment with elevated atmospheric CO2-mediated changes to C4 crop-herbivore interactions.

Xie H, Liu K, Sun D, Wang Z, Lu X, He K - Sci Rep (2015)

Height of maize plants in response to the effect of Ostrinia furnacalis infestation under different CO2 levels in 2012 and 2013.Different letters indicate significant differences among treatments (CONTRASTS test, P < 0.05).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585379&req=5

f1: Height of maize plants in response to the effect of Ostrinia furnacalis infestation under different CO2 levels in 2012 and 2013.Different letters indicate significant differences among treatments (CONTRASTS test, P < 0.05).
Mentions: The results revealed that the E-CO2 had a positive effect on the growth of plants, whereas the ACB infestation affected plant growth negatively (Fig. 1). A significant “air fertilizer” effect of E-CO2 was observed on maize plant growth (2012: F2,6 = 4.92, P < 0.05, Fig. 1A; 2013: F2,6 = 5.23, P < 0.05, Fig. 1B). Averaged over 2 years, the height of maize plants significantly increased by 3.85% under 750 μl/l compared with the ambient CO2. By contrast, the ACB damage at the whorl stage significantly suppressed the growth of maize plants (2012: F2,8 = 8.94, P < 0.01, Fig. 1C; 2013: F2,8 = 33.25, P < 0.01, Fig. 1D). Averaged over 2 years, the height of maize plants decreased by 6.54% with an ACB infestation at the whorl stage compared with the control. Overall, the ACB damage at the whorl stage completely dampened the positive height response of the maize plants to the E-CO2 (Fig. 1), which suggested that the larvae altered their food consumption to compensate for the changes in the quality of the maize plants. Additionally, the grain yields of the maize plants were significantly affected by the concentration of CO2 (Table 4). The average number of kernels per ear increased by 4.3% and 4.5% in 2012 and 2013, respectively, under E-CO2 (750 μl/l) compared with the ambient CO2. There was no significant difference in the weight per 100-kernels among the treatments. These results demonstrated the positive effect of E-CO2 on maize grain production. The damage ratings of the ACB were unaffected by the concentration of CO2 during the two years (Table 5). There were no significant differences in the number of tunnels per plant or in the length of cavities per plant among the treatments.

Bottom Line: The results indicated that there was a positive effect of E-CO2 on the accumulation of maize biomass, i.e., the "air-fertilizer" effect, which led to a nutritional deficiency in the plants.The fitness-related parameters of ACB were adversely affected by the CO2-mediated decreased in plant nutritional quality, and ACB might alter its food consumption to compensate for these changes.Larval damage to maize under E-CO2 appears to be offset by this "air-fertilizer" effect, with reductions in larval fitness.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, P. R. China.

ABSTRACT
The effects of elevated CO2 (E-CO2) on maize and Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis, in open-top chambers were studied. The plants were infested with ACB and exposed to ambient and elevated (550 and 750 μl/l) CO2. E-CO2 increased the plant height and kernel number per ear. The plants had lower nitrogen contents and higher TNC: N ratios under E-CO2 than at ambient CO2. The response of plant height to E-CO2 was significantly dampened in plants with ACB infestation. However, the weight gain of the survivors declined in plants grown under E-CO2. Moreover, the plant damage caused by ACB was not different among the treatments. Overwintering larvae developed under E-CO2 had a lower supercooling point than those developed under ambient CO2. The results indicated that there was a positive effect of E-CO2 on the accumulation of maize biomass, i.e., the "air-fertilizer" effect, which led to a nutritional deficiency in the plants. The fitness-related parameters of ACB were adversely affected by the CO2-mediated decreased in plant nutritional quality, and ACB might alter its food consumption to compensate for these changes. Larval damage to maize under E-CO2 appears to be offset by this "air-fertilizer" effect, with reductions in larval fitness.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus