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Assessment of the rabbit as a wildlife reservoir of bovine viral diarrhea virus: serological analysis and generation of trans-placentally infected offspring.

Grant DM, Dagleish MP, Bachofen C, Boag B, Deane D, Percival A, Zadoks RN, Russell GC - Front Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: This did not lead to any clinical signs in the infected animals or obvious increases in abortion or stillbirth in the infected dams.Samples from the dams, placental material and ∼130 offspring were tested by BVDV-specific RT-PCR and antibody ELISA.Many of the offspring had BVDV-specific antibodies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Vaccines and Diagnostics, Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park Midlothian, UK.

ABSTRACT
Eradication of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is ongoing in many European countries and is based on removal of persistently infected (PI) cattle. In this context, low-level risks, including alternative reservoirs of infection, may become more important as the number of BVDV-free herds increases. Alternative reservoirs include livestock, such as sheep and goats, as well as wildlife, including deer and rabbits. Due to the extensive nature of the beef industry in Scotland, where an eradication program started in 2010, contact between cattle and alternative reservoir hosts is common. Seroprevalence to BVDV in rabbit populations can be high. In addition, rabbits can be infected with BVDV by natural routes, indicating that they could be a wildlife reservoir of infection. We analyzed the potential risk to livestock from rabbit populations in the UK by two approaches. First, ∼260 serum samples from free-ranging wild rabbits in Scotland and northern England were tested for BVDV-specific antibodies by ELISA. Only three samples exhibited low level BVDV-specific reactivity, suggesting that BVDV infection of rabbits was not frequent. Second, rabbits were challenged with BVDV at day 7 or 12 of pregnancy. This did not lead to any clinical signs in the infected animals or obvious increases in abortion or stillbirth in the infected dams. Samples from the dams, placental material and ∼130 offspring were tested by BVDV-specific RT-PCR and antibody ELISA. Positive PCR results in the placentas and in the tissues and body fluids of rabbits up to 10 days old showed that trans-placental infection of rabbits with BVDV had occurred. Many of the offspring had BVDV-specific antibodies. These data support the view that a wildlife reservoir of BVDV in rabbit poses a small but non-zero risk of re-infection for BVDV-free cattle herds. Rabbits are susceptible to infection with BVDV but only a small proportion of free-living rabbits in the UK appear to have been infected.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Reactivity of wild rabbit serum to bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus antigen. The sample to positive (S/P) value (vertical axis) for each sample tested was plotted. Control positive serum (leftmost sample 1) has an S/P value of 1 while control negative serum (sample 2) has a value of 0. The geographic source of samples is indicated beneath the chart, with year of collection for Perth samples. Samples from Yorkshire were collected between 2007 and 2014; samples from Coll were collected between 2008 and 2012. The position of the S/P value cut-off for these samples (0.13) is indicated by a horizontal line. Samples that gave S/P values >0.13 are indicated by asterisks (∗).
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Figure 1: Reactivity of wild rabbit serum to bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus antigen. The sample to positive (S/P) value (vertical axis) for each sample tested was plotted. Control positive serum (leftmost sample 1) has an S/P value of 1 while control negative serum (sample 2) has a value of 0. The geographic source of samples is indicated beneath the chart, with year of collection for Perth samples. Samples from Yorkshire were collected between 2007 and 2014; samples from Coll were collected between 2008 and 2012. The position of the S/P value cut-off for these samples (0.13) is indicated by a horizontal line. Samples that gave S/P values >0.13 are indicated by asterisks (∗).

Mentions: Serum samples were obtained from wild rabbits shot at three locations in the UK as described previously (Boag et al., 2001, 2013). The majority of samples came from a 400 ha site in Perthshire, Scotland (182; 2008–2011, Figure 1), while others were obtained in North Yorkshire, England (31; 2004–2009) and the island of Coll, Scotland (45; 1985–2014). Serum samples were stored at -20°C until required for analysis of serological responses to BVDV antigens.


Assessment of the rabbit as a wildlife reservoir of bovine viral diarrhea virus: serological analysis and generation of trans-placentally infected offspring.

Grant DM, Dagleish MP, Bachofen C, Boag B, Deane D, Percival A, Zadoks RN, Russell GC - Front Microbiol (2015)

Reactivity of wild rabbit serum to bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus antigen. The sample to positive (S/P) value (vertical axis) for each sample tested was plotted. Control positive serum (leftmost sample 1) has an S/P value of 1 while control negative serum (sample 2) has a value of 0. The geographic source of samples is indicated beneath the chart, with year of collection for Perth samples. Samples from Yorkshire were collected between 2007 and 2014; samples from Coll were collected between 2008 and 2012. The position of the S/P value cut-off for these samples (0.13) is indicated by a horizontal line. Samples that gave S/P values >0.13 are indicated by asterisks (∗).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585287&req=5

Figure 1: Reactivity of wild rabbit serum to bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus antigen. The sample to positive (S/P) value (vertical axis) for each sample tested was plotted. Control positive serum (leftmost sample 1) has an S/P value of 1 while control negative serum (sample 2) has a value of 0. The geographic source of samples is indicated beneath the chart, with year of collection for Perth samples. Samples from Yorkshire were collected between 2007 and 2014; samples from Coll were collected between 2008 and 2012. The position of the S/P value cut-off for these samples (0.13) is indicated by a horizontal line. Samples that gave S/P values >0.13 are indicated by asterisks (∗).
Mentions: Serum samples were obtained from wild rabbits shot at three locations in the UK as described previously (Boag et al., 2001, 2013). The majority of samples came from a 400 ha site in Perthshire, Scotland (182; 2008–2011, Figure 1), while others were obtained in North Yorkshire, England (31; 2004–2009) and the island of Coll, Scotland (45; 1985–2014). Serum samples were stored at -20°C until required for analysis of serological responses to BVDV antigens.

Bottom Line: This did not lead to any clinical signs in the infected animals or obvious increases in abortion or stillbirth in the infected dams.Samples from the dams, placental material and ∼130 offspring were tested by BVDV-specific RT-PCR and antibody ELISA.Many of the offspring had BVDV-specific antibodies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Vaccines and Diagnostics, Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park Midlothian, UK.

ABSTRACT
Eradication of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is ongoing in many European countries and is based on removal of persistently infected (PI) cattle. In this context, low-level risks, including alternative reservoirs of infection, may become more important as the number of BVDV-free herds increases. Alternative reservoirs include livestock, such as sheep and goats, as well as wildlife, including deer and rabbits. Due to the extensive nature of the beef industry in Scotland, where an eradication program started in 2010, contact between cattle and alternative reservoir hosts is common. Seroprevalence to BVDV in rabbit populations can be high. In addition, rabbits can be infected with BVDV by natural routes, indicating that they could be a wildlife reservoir of infection. We analyzed the potential risk to livestock from rabbit populations in the UK by two approaches. First, ∼260 serum samples from free-ranging wild rabbits in Scotland and northern England were tested for BVDV-specific antibodies by ELISA. Only three samples exhibited low level BVDV-specific reactivity, suggesting that BVDV infection of rabbits was not frequent. Second, rabbits were challenged with BVDV at day 7 or 12 of pregnancy. This did not lead to any clinical signs in the infected animals or obvious increases in abortion or stillbirth in the infected dams. Samples from the dams, placental material and ∼130 offspring were tested by BVDV-specific RT-PCR and antibody ELISA. Positive PCR results in the placentas and in the tissues and body fluids of rabbits up to 10 days old showed that trans-placental infection of rabbits with BVDV had occurred. Many of the offspring had BVDV-specific antibodies. These data support the view that a wildlife reservoir of BVDV in rabbit poses a small but non-zero risk of re-infection for BVDV-free cattle herds. Rabbits are susceptible to infection with BVDV but only a small proportion of free-living rabbits in the UK appear to have been infected.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus