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Infant discrimination of humanoid robots.

Matsuda G, Ishiguro H, Hiraki K - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area.There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android.These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medical Education and General Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine Kyoto, Japan ; Department of General Systems Studies, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo Tokyo, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Recently, extremely humanlike robots called "androids" have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants) were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm-a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android-two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants' looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body) was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Heat maps of mean gaze count across all trials of all participants, superimposed upon each agent after 7 × 7 pixel Gaussian smoothing was applied. Red represents an area that the greatest number of infants viewed. areas of interest (AOI) are depicted as white rectangles. The reason for the focused areas in the goal area of the android and the robot spreading vertically is probably due to the trajectories of the agents’ hands.
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Figure 2: Heat maps of mean gaze count across all trials of all participants, superimposed upon each agent after 7 × 7 pixel Gaussian smoothing was applied. Red represents an area that the greatest number of infants viewed. areas of interest (AOI) are depicted as white rectangles. The reason for the focused areas in the goal area of the android and the robot spreading vertically is probably due to the trajectories of the agents’ hands.

Mentions: We defined three static areas of interest (AOI), corresponding to the face area, a goal area, and the body area (see Figure 2). The same three AOI were applied to each agent, and statistical analysis was performed separately for each pair of agents (HA, HR, and AR). To calculate the proportions of looking times toward each AOI of each agent, mean gaze counts were divided by the total gaze count for two agents presented simultaneously. One gaze count corresponds to 3.3 ms viewing at 300 Hz sampling. A three-way mixed design analysis of variance (ANOVA; age group × agent × AOI) with the arcsine transformation was conducted for the proportions of looking times, and the Huynh–Feldt correction for degrees of freedom was employed as necessary. Multiple comparison with the Bonferroni method was carried out when an interaction was found.


Infant discrimination of humanoid robots.

Matsuda G, Ishiguro H, Hiraki K - Front Psychol (2015)

Heat maps of mean gaze count across all trials of all participants, superimposed upon each agent after 7 × 7 pixel Gaussian smoothing was applied. Red represents an area that the greatest number of infants viewed. areas of interest (AOI) are depicted as white rectangles. The reason for the focused areas in the goal area of the android and the robot spreading vertically is probably due to the trajectories of the agents’ hands.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585262&req=5

Figure 2: Heat maps of mean gaze count across all trials of all participants, superimposed upon each agent after 7 × 7 pixel Gaussian smoothing was applied. Red represents an area that the greatest number of infants viewed. areas of interest (AOI) are depicted as white rectangles. The reason for the focused areas in the goal area of the android and the robot spreading vertically is probably due to the trajectories of the agents’ hands.
Mentions: We defined three static areas of interest (AOI), corresponding to the face area, a goal area, and the body area (see Figure 2). The same three AOI were applied to each agent, and statistical analysis was performed separately for each pair of agents (HA, HR, and AR). To calculate the proportions of looking times toward each AOI of each agent, mean gaze counts were divided by the total gaze count for two agents presented simultaneously. One gaze count corresponds to 3.3 ms viewing at 300 Hz sampling. A three-way mixed design analysis of variance (ANOVA; age group × agent × AOI) with the arcsine transformation was conducted for the proportions of looking times, and the Huynh–Feldt correction for degrees of freedom was employed as necessary. Multiple comparison with the Bonferroni method was carried out when an interaction was found.

Bottom Line: Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area.There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android.These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medical Education and General Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine Kyoto, Japan ; Department of General Systems Studies, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo Tokyo, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Recently, extremely humanlike robots called "androids" have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants) were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm-a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android-two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants' looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body) was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus