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Plant and pathogen nutrient acquisition strategies.

Fatima U, Senthil-Kumar M - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: In addition, we highlight the current status of our understanding about the nutrient acquisition strategies used by bacterial pathogens, namely targeting the sugar transporters that are dedicated for the plant's growth and development.Bacterial strategies for altering the plant cell membrane permeability to enhance the release of nutrients are also enumerated along with in-depth analysis of molecular mechanisms behind these strategies.The information presented in this review will be useful to understand the plant-pathogen interaction in nutrient perspective.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute of Plant Genome Research New Delhi, India.

ABSTRACT
Nutrients are indispensable elements required for the growth of all living organisms including plants and pathogens. Phyllosphere, rhizosphere, apoplast, phloem, xylem, and cell organelles are the nutrient niches in plants that are the target of bacterial pathogens. Depending upon nutrients availability, the pathogen adapts various acquisition strategies and inhabits the specific niche. In this review, we discuss the nutrient composition of different niches in plants, the mechanisms involved in the recognition of nutrient niche and the sophisticated strategies used by the bacterial pathogens for acquiring nutrients. We provide insight into various nutrient acquisition strategies used by necrotrophic, biotrophic, and hemibiotrophic bacteria. Specifically we discuss both modulation of bacterial machinery and manipulation of host machinery. In addition, we highlight the current status of our understanding about the nutrient acquisition strategies used by bacterial pathogens, namely targeting the sugar transporters that are dedicated for the plant's growth and development. Bacterial strategies for altering the plant cell membrane permeability to enhance the release of nutrients are also enumerated along with in-depth analysis of molecular mechanisms behind these strategies. The information presented in this review will be useful to understand the plant-pathogen interaction in nutrient perspective.

No MeSH data available.


Illustration of nutrient niches in plants accessed by bacterial pathogens. Plants predominantly have five nutrient niches namely (A) phloem, (B) xylem, (C) leaf apoplast, (D) root apoplast, and (E) cell organelles. These niches serve as nutrient reservoirs for invading bacterial pathogen(s). Nutrient content varies in these niches ranging from different types of minerals and carbon sources including sugars, amino acids, organic acids, and organic alcohols. Circles indicate sugars. Triangles indicate amino acids. Square indicates minerals. Five point star indicates organic acids. Seven point star indicates organic alcohols. Diamonds indicate water. Number of symbols indicate the abundance of nutrients.
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Figure 1: Illustration of nutrient niches in plants accessed by bacterial pathogens. Plants predominantly have five nutrient niches namely (A) phloem, (B) xylem, (C) leaf apoplast, (D) root apoplast, and (E) cell organelles. These niches serve as nutrient reservoirs for invading bacterial pathogen(s). Nutrient content varies in these niches ranging from different types of minerals and carbon sources including sugars, amino acids, organic acids, and organic alcohols. Circles indicate sugars. Triangles indicate amino acids. Square indicates minerals. Five point star indicates organic acids. Seven point star indicates organic alcohols. Diamonds indicate water. Number of symbols indicate the abundance of nutrients.

Mentions: Pathogenic bacteria infect host plants to acquire nutrients. Initially, bacterial pathogens colonize the plant surfaces namely, the phyllosphere and the rhizosphere and obtain nutrients. Later, majority of them gain access to the interior portions of plant tissues including the vascular elements and the intercellular spaces to obtain more nutrients and to avoid harsh and fluctuating environmental conditions (Beattie and Lindow, 1995, 1999; Melotto et al., 2008; Vorholt, 2012; Griffin and Carson, 2015). The nutrients and favorable environmental conditions inside the plants help pathogens to grow and multiply at high densities, eventually causing serious diseases. Bacterial pathogens enter plants through pre-existing openings such as stomata (for example, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, causal agent of bacterial speck of tomato; Melotto et al., 2008; Griffin and Carson, 2015), nectarthodes (for example, Erwinia amylovora, causal agent of fire blight of apple; Melotto et al., 2008; Griffin and Carson, 2015), hydathodes (for example, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, causal agent of bacterial blight of rice, Nino-Liu et al., 2006; Griffin and Carson, 2015), and lenticels (for example, E. carotovora pv. atroseptica, causal agent of blackleg of potato; Adams, 1975). They also enter through abrasions on leaf, stem or root and are transmitted through sucking insects (for example, Xylella fastidiosa, causal agent of Pierce’s disease of grapevine and variegated chlorosis of citrus) feeding on vascular elements (Purcell and Hopkins, 1996; Griffin and Carson, 2015). Once inside the plant, different pathogenic bacteria inhabit different parts of plant tissues termed in this review as a ‘niche’. Plant niches that harbor pathogens can be defined on the basis of distinct anatomical features of plant tissue, variation in nutrient contents and the difference in their access to pathogens. Based on this, we classified the nutrient niches in six different types namely, phyllosphere, rhizosphere, apoplast, xylem, phloem, and cell organelles (Figure 1). Bacterial pathogens are mainly limited to the apoplast, but some can inhabit xylem or phloem cells to obtain nutrients (Bove and Garnier, 2002; Rico and Preston, 2008). Sugars and amino acids are predominantly present in the phloem and the leaf apoplast whereas, mineral nutrients and water are abundant in the xylem and the root apoplast (Myburg et al., 2001; Dinant et al., 2010).


Plant and pathogen nutrient acquisition strategies.

Fatima U, Senthil-Kumar M - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Illustration of nutrient niches in plants accessed by bacterial pathogens. Plants predominantly have five nutrient niches namely (A) phloem, (B) xylem, (C) leaf apoplast, (D) root apoplast, and (E) cell organelles. These niches serve as nutrient reservoirs for invading bacterial pathogen(s). Nutrient content varies in these niches ranging from different types of minerals and carbon sources including sugars, amino acids, organic acids, and organic alcohols. Circles indicate sugars. Triangles indicate amino acids. Square indicates minerals. Five point star indicates organic acids. Seven point star indicates organic alcohols. Diamonds indicate water. Number of symbols indicate the abundance of nutrients.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585253&req=5

Figure 1: Illustration of nutrient niches in plants accessed by bacterial pathogens. Plants predominantly have five nutrient niches namely (A) phloem, (B) xylem, (C) leaf apoplast, (D) root apoplast, and (E) cell organelles. These niches serve as nutrient reservoirs for invading bacterial pathogen(s). Nutrient content varies in these niches ranging from different types of minerals and carbon sources including sugars, amino acids, organic acids, and organic alcohols. Circles indicate sugars. Triangles indicate amino acids. Square indicates minerals. Five point star indicates organic acids. Seven point star indicates organic alcohols. Diamonds indicate water. Number of symbols indicate the abundance of nutrients.
Mentions: Pathogenic bacteria infect host plants to acquire nutrients. Initially, bacterial pathogens colonize the plant surfaces namely, the phyllosphere and the rhizosphere and obtain nutrients. Later, majority of them gain access to the interior portions of plant tissues including the vascular elements and the intercellular spaces to obtain more nutrients and to avoid harsh and fluctuating environmental conditions (Beattie and Lindow, 1995, 1999; Melotto et al., 2008; Vorholt, 2012; Griffin and Carson, 2015). The nutrients and favorable environmental conditions inside the plants help pathogens to grow and multiply at high densities, eventually causing serious diseases. Bacterial pathogens enter plants through pre-existing openings such as stomata (for example, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, causal agent of bacterial speck of tomato; Melotto et al., 2008; Griffin and Carson, 2015), nectarthodes (for example, Erwinia amylovora, causal agent of fire blight of apple; Melotto et al., 2008; Griffin and Carson, 2015), hydathodes (for example, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, causal agent of bacterial blight of rice, Nino-Liu et al., 2006; Griffin and Carson, 2015), and lenticels (for example, E. carotovora pv. atroseptica, causal agent of blackleg of potato; Adams, 1975). They also enter through abrasions on leaf, stem or root and are transmitted through sucking insects (for example, Xylella fastidiosa, causal agent of Pierce’s disease of grapevine and variegated chlorosis of citrus) feeding on vascular elements (Purcell and Hopkins, 1996; Griffin and Carson, 2015). Once inside the plant, different pathogenic bacteria inhabit different parts of plant tissues termed in this review as a ‘niche’. Plant niches that harbor pathogens can be defined on the basis of distinct anatomical features of plant tissue, variation in nutrient contents and the difference in their access to pathogens. Based on this, we classified the nutrient niches in six different types namely, phyllosphere, rhizosphere, apoplast, xylem, phloem, and cell organelles (Figure 1). Bacterial pathogens are mainly limited to the apoplast, but some can inhabit xylem or phloem cells to obtain nutrients (Bove and Garnier, 2002; Rico and Preston, 2008). Sugars and amino acids are predominantly present in the phloem and the leaf apoplast whereas, mineral nutrients and water are abundant in the xylem and the root apoplast (Myburg et al., 2001; Dinant et al., 2010).

Bottom Line: In addition, we highlight the current status of our understanding about the nutrient acquisition strategies used by bacterial pathogens, namely targeting the sugar transporters that are dedicated for the plant's growth and development.Bacterial strategies for altering the plant cell membrane permeability to enhance the release of nutrients are also enumerated along with in-depth analysis of molecular mechanisms behind these strategies.The information presented in this review will be useful to understand the plant-pathogen interaction in nutrient perspective.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute of Plant Genome Research New Delhi, India.

ABSTRACT
Nutrients are indispensable elements required for the growth of all living organisms including plants and pathogens. Phyllosphere, rhizosphere, apoplast, phloem, xylem, and cell organelles are the nutrient niches in plants that are the target of bacterial pathogens. Depending upon nutrients availability, the pathogen adapts various acquisition strategies and inhabits the specific niche. In this review, we discuss the nutrient composition of different niches in plants, the mechanisms involved in the recognition of nutrient niche and the sophisticated strategies used by the bacterial pathogens for acquiring nutrients. We provide insight into various nutrient acquisition strategies used by necrotrophic, biotrophic, and hemibiotrophic bacteria. Specifically we discuss both modulation of bacterial machinery and manipulation of host machinery. In addition, we highlight the current status of our understanding about the nutrient acquisition strategies used by bacterial pathogens, namely targeting the sugar transporters that are dedicated for the plant's growth and development. Bacterial strategies for altering the plant cell membrane permeability to enhance the release of nutrients are also enumerated along with in-depth analysis of molecular mechanisms behind these strategies. The information presented in this review will be useful to understand the plant-pathogen interaction in nutrient perspective.

No MeSH data available.