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Music and Sound in Time Processing of Children with ADHD.

Carrer LR - Front Psychiatry (2015)

Bottom Line: The main objective was to develop sound and musical tasks to evaluate and correlate the performance of children with ADHD, with and without methylphenidate, compared to a control group with typical development.The study involved 36 participants of age 6-14 years, recruited at NANI-UNIFESP/SP, subdivided into three groups with 12 children in each.Data was collected through a musical keyboard using Logic Audio Software 9.0 on the computer that recorded the participant's performance in the tasks.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP) , São Paulo , Brazil.

ABSTRACT

Unlabelled: ADHD involves cognitive and behavioral aspects with impairments in many environments of children and their families' lives. Music, with its playful, spontaneous, affective, motivational, temporal, and rhythmic dimensions can be of great help for studying the aspects of time processing in ADHD. In this article, we studied time processing with simple sounds and music in children with ADHD with the hypothesis that children with ADHD have a different performance when compared with children with normal development in tasks of time estimation and production. The main objective was to develop sound and musical tasks to evaluate and correlate the performance of children with ADHD, with and without methylphenidate, compared to a control group with typical development. The study involved 36 participants of age 6-14 years, recruited at NANI-UNIFESP/SP, subdivided into three groups with 12 children in each. Data was collected through a musical keyboard using Logic Audio Software 9.0 on the computer that recorded the participant's performance in the tasks. Tasks were divided into sections: spontaneous time production, time estimation with simple sounds, and time estimation with music.

Results: (1) performance of ADHD groups in temporal estimation of simple sounds in short time intervals (30 ms) were statistically lower than that of control group (p < 0.05); (2) in the task comparing musical excerpts of the same duration (7 s), ADHD groups considered the tracks longer when the musical notes had longer durations, while in the control group, the duration was related to the density of musical notes in the track. The positive average performance observed in the three groups in most tasks perhaps indicates the possibility that music can, in some way, positively modulate the symptoms of inattention in ADHD.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

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Figure 1: Laboratory.

Mentions: The total sample consisted of 36 participants recruited by Núcleo de Atendimento Neuropsicológico Infantil Interdisciplinar (NANI) at UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil of ages 6–14, divided into three groups with 12 participants in each. The clinical sample consisted of 24 children with ADHD, subdivided into two subgroups: Group 1 – no medication (ADHD/NM) at least 7 days prior to the test; Group 2 – medication (ADHD/M) for at least 30 days prior to the performance of the test. Inclusion criteria considered for the study group: presence of at least six symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity in the DSM IV (SNAP Scale) (63), estimated IQ above 85 on the Weschler Child (WISC-III), normal hearing, absence of comorbidities in the symptom scales of child behavior check lists (CBCL) (t-score < 60) and good school performance. All children in the study were previously submitted to interdisciplinary evaluation that included medical and musical history, neurological, psychiatric, pedagogical, and neuropsychological assessment. Control group consisted of 12 children with typical development without symptoms of inattention or hyperactivity (less than two symptoms in SNAP Scale), IQ > 85 (WISC – III estimated), normal hearing and no health impairments. The control group was recruited with a letter to the school requesting permission from the board direction and the teachers. All participants and parents signed a consent form. The study excluded individuals with autism spectrum disorder, psychiatric comorbidities, and formal music study in order to avoid possible strategies of implementation and performance on tasks. Data was recorded through evaluation sheets, and the performance of participants was recorded in the computer through the keyboard connected to a digital interface for musical instruments (Avid MC-400). Data analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) (64) with non-parametric tests with 95% significance level (p < 0.05). The study was held in an appropriate room with all the necessary instruments and a comfortable and quiet environment to allow for the most accurate results. Figure 1 shows the laboratory.


Music and Sound in Time Processing of Children with ADHD.

Carrer LR - Front Psychiatry (2015)

Laboratory.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585247&req=5

Figure 1: Laboratory.
Mentions: The total sample consisted of 36 participants recruited by Núcleo de Atendimento Neuropsicológico Infantil Interdisciplinar (NANI) at UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil of ages 6–14, divided into three groups with 12 participants in each. The clinical sample consisted of 24 children with ADHD, subdivided into two subgroups: Group 1 – no medication (ADHD/NM) at least 7 days prior to the test; Group 2 – medication (ADHD/M) for at least 30 days prior to the performance of the test. Inclusion criteria considered for the study group: presence of at least six symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity in the DSM IV (SNAP Scale) (63), estimated IQ above 85 on the Weschler Child (WISC-III), normal hearing, absence of comorbidities in the symptom scales of child behavior check lists (CBCL) (t-score < 60) and good school performance. All children in the study were previously submitted to interdisciplinary evaluation that included medical and musical history, neurological, psychiatric, pedagogical, and neuropsychological assessment. Control group consisted of 12 children with typical development without symptoms of inattention or hyperactivity (less than two symptoms in SNAP Scale), IQ > 85 (WISC – III estimated), normal hearing and no health impairments. The control group was recruited with a letter to the school requesting permission from the board direction and the teachers. All participants and parents signed a consent form. The study excluded individuals with autism spectrum disorder, psychiatric comorbidities, and formal music study in order to avoid possible strategies of implementation and performance on tasks. Data was recorded through evaluation sheets, and the performance of participants was recorded in the computer through the keyboard connected to a digital interface for musical instruments (Avid MC-400). Data analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) (64) with non-parametric tests with 95% significance level (p < 0.05). The study was held in an appropriate room with all the necessary instruments and a comfortable and quiet environment to allow for the most accurate results. Figure 1 shows the laboratory.

Bottom Line: The main objective was to develop sound and musical tasks to evaluate and correlate the performance of children with ADHD, with and without methylphenidate, compared to a control group with typical development.The study involved 36 participants of age 6-14 years, recruited at NANI-UNIFESP/SP, subdivided into three groups with 12 children in each.Data was collected through a musical keyboard using Logic Audio Software 9.0 on the computer that recorded the participant's performance in the tasks.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP) , São Paulo , Brazil.

ABSTRACT

Unlabelled: ADHD involves cognitive and behavioral aspects with impairments in many environments of children and their families' lives. Music, with its playful, spontaneous, affective, motivational, temporal, and rhythmic dimensions can be of great help for studying the aspects of time processing in ADHD. In this article, we studied time processing with simple sounds and music in children with ADHD with the hypothesis that children with ADHD have a different performance when compared with children with normal development in tasks of time estimation and production. The main objective was to develop sound and musical tasks to evaluate and correlate the performance of children with ADHD, with and without methylphenidate, compared to a control group with typical development. The study involved 36 participants of age 6-14 years, recruited at NANI-UNIFESP/SP, subdivided into three groups with 12 children in each. Data was collected through a musical keyboard using Logic Audio Software 9.0 on the computer that recorded the participant's performance in the tasks. Tasks were divided into sections: spontaneous time production, time estimation with simple sounds, and time estimation with music.

Results: (1) performance of ADHD groups in temporal estimation of simple sounds in short time intervals (30 ms) were statistically lower than that of control group (p < 0.05); (2) in the task comparing musical excerpts of the same duration (7 s), ADHD groups considered the tracks longer when the musical notes had longer durations, while in the control group, the duration was related to the density of musical notes in the track. The positive average performance observed in the three groups in most tasks perhaps indicates the possibility that music can, in some way, positively modulate the symptoms of inattention in ADHD.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus